Carnegie Mellon University

Publications by CCRL Members

CCRL research sheds light on how people navigate challenging interpersonal interactions and difficult conversations. View our most recent publications below or jump to the bottom for all CCRL research, categorized by topics.


By the CCRL Team

Honest Feedback: Barriers to Receptivity and Discerning the Truth in Feedback

Current Opinion in Psychology | Nathan M. Fulham, Kori L. Krueger, Taya R. Cohen

In this article, we identify barriers to receptivity and discerning the truth in feedback and illustrate how these barriers hinder recipients’ learning and improvement. Honesty is critically important for both receptivity and discerning the truth in the feedback.

The Psychological Experience of Intragroup Conflict

Research in Organizational Behavior | Kori L. Krueger, Matthew A. Diabes. Laurie R. Weingart

The vast majority of research on team conflict has conceptualized conflict as a group-level phenomenon involving perceptions that are shared by all team members. We advance the understanding of team conflict by developing a model that recognizes that people experience conflict differently based on their personal characteristics which, in turn, influence the process through which they make sense of the conflict as it occurs.  

Recent Publications

By Laurie Weingart, Richard M. and Margaret S. Cyert Professor of Organizational Behavior and Theory

The Effects of Conflict Type and Conflict Expression Intensity on Conflict Management

International Journal of Conflict Management | Gergana Todorova, Kenneth T. Goh, Laurie R. Weingart

This research demonstrates that people use different approaches to managing conflict depending on the type of conflict (about the task or their interpersonal relationships) and the intensity with which opposition is expressed. Results show that people are more likely to respond to task conflict and conflicts expressed with less intensity using problem-solving, compromising and yielding, and to relationship conflicts and conflicts expressed with higher intensity through forcing. Information acquisition and negative emotions experienced by team members help to explain these relationships.

Opening the Black Box of I-Deals Negotiation: Integrating I-Deals and Negotiation Research

Group and Organization Management | Maria Simosi, Denise M. Rousseau, Laurie R. Weingart

This paper examines how negotiation research and theory inform our understanding of how individualized work arrangements or “i-deals” are created. We identify key features of negotiation that apply to i-deal formulation and use these to develop an agenda for future research on i-deals.

The “Fixed” Pie Perception and Strategy in Dyadic Versus Multiparty Negotiations

Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes | Mary C. Kern, Jeanne M. Brett, Laurie R. Weingart, Chase S. Eck

Evidence from three studies shows how multiparty negotiators can be just as successful as two-party negotiators by using tactical behavior differently in response to the complexities of the situation.

Work Design and Task Conflict in Interdisciplinary Groups

International Journal of Conflict Management | Gergana Todorova, Matthew R.W. Brake, Laurie R. Weingart

Results from a study of 29 academic research labs across two universities demonstrates how diversity of expertise and group work design combine to influence task conflict, idea sharing, and performance in research lab groups.

By Taya Cohen, Associate Professor of Organizational Behavior and Business Ethics

Brokering Orientations and Social Capital: Influencing Others' Relationships Shapes Status and Trust

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology | Nir Halevy, Eliran Halali, Taya R. Cohen

People often influence others’ relationships, for better or worse. In this paper, we conceptualize social influence processes that impact others’ social networks as brokering, and introduce a novel measure of brokering orientations that helps us understand how brokering behavior shapes people’s social capital. Our work explains how brokering behaviors can create, terminate, reinforce, and modify others’ network ties

Honesty Among Lawyers: Moral Character, Game Framing, and Honest Disclosures in Negotiations

Negotiation Journal | Taya R., Cohen, Erik G. Helzer, Robert A. Creo,

Lawyers have broad discretion in deciding how honestly to behave when negotiating. In this paper, we propose that lawyers’ choices about whether to disclose information to correct misimpressions by opposing counsel are guided by their moral character and their cognitive framing of negotiation.

The Character Lens: A Person-Centered View of Moral Recognition and Ethical Decision-Making

Journal of Business Ethics | Erik G. Helzer, Taya R. Cohen, Yeonjeong Kim

This work unifies research on moral character, moral recognition, sensemaking, and judgment and decision-making into a person-centered account of ethical decision-making, highlighting the way decision-makers actively and directly shape the choice contexts to which they must respond.

Difficult Conversations: Navigating the Tension Between Honesty and Benevolence

Current Opinion in Psychology | Emma E. Levine, Annabelle R. Roberts, Taya R. Cohen

In this article, we review recent research on egocentrism, ethics, and communication to explain why communicators overestimate the degree to which honesty and benevolence conflict during difficult conversations, document the conversational missteps people make as a result of this erred perception, and propose more effective conversational strategies that honor the long-term compatibility of honesty and benevolence.    

By Binyamin Cooper, Postdoctoral Fellow

Trapped by a First Hypothesis: How Rudeness Leads to Anchoring

Journal of Applied Psychology | Binyamin Cooper, Christopher R. Giordano, Amir Erez, Trevor A. Foulk, Heather Reed, Kent B. Berg 

Across four studies, the authors investigated the effect of exposure to rude behavior on workers’ tendency to rely too heavily or fixate on one piece of information when making a decision. The studies included medical simulations, negotiation, and general judgement tasks, and showed that exposure to these relatively low-intensity disrespectful behaviors can potentially have life or death consequences.

How Witnessing Rudeness Can Disrupt Psycho‐Motor Performance of Dental Students

Journal of Dental Education | Andrew Woolum, Luisa F. Echeto, Binyamin Cooper, Jake Gale, Amir Erez, Joseph Katz, Marcio Guelmann, Roy G. Jerrell, Panagiotis Zoidis

While exposure to negative behaviors is thought to primarily impact cognitive decision-making processes, a study conducted in a dentistry setting showed that exposure to rude behavior extends beyond cognitive impacts to also impair psychomotor skills (i.e., skills related to physical movement).

By Kori Krueger, Postdoctoral Fellow

Communicating Commitment: A Relationship-Protection Account of Dyadic Displays on Social Media

Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin |  Kori L. Krueger,  Amanda L. Forest

People often make their relationships visible to others on social media sites. Our work suggests that romantically-involved people use dyadic displays to make their relationships visible due to a strong motivation to protect their relationships from interference. Furthermore, dyadic displays also serve a relationship-protective function: They signal that one is in a high-quality relationship and will be unreceptive to romantic advances from others.

Facilitating and Motivating Support: How Support‐Seekers Can Affect the Support They Receive in Times of Distress

Social and Personality Psychology Compass | Amanda L. Forest, Rebecca M. Walsh, Kori L. Krueger

This paper explores the role that support-seekers play in eliciting support. We describe how behaviors enacted by the support-seeker can facilitate (or hinder) providers’ ability to provide high-quality support and motivate (or de-motivate) support provision efforts.

By Matthew Diabes, Ph.D. Candidate

Psychological Safety in Intensive Care Unit Rounding Teams 

Annals of the American Thoracic Society | Matthew A. Diabes, Jennifer N. Ervin, Billie S. Davis, Kimberly J. Rak, Taya R. Cohen, Laurie R. Weingart, Jeremy M. Kahn

In the high-stakes environment of the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), the difference between speaking up and shutting down can significantly impact team effectiveness and quality of care. In this study of healthcare providers in 12 ICUs, results showed that ICU team members whose leaders were more inclusive in their leadership style experienced greater feelings of psychological safety to speak up, while those who experienced higher levels of job strain experienced less psychological safety.

Additional Research, Categorized by Topic

Click on the links below for the full list of CCRL research in each category.

This research investigates collaboration and conflict in groups and teams, innovation in interdisciplinary teams, communication and honesty in difficult conversations, collaboration and conflict in healthcare, and intergroup conflict.

Collaboration and Conflict in Groups and Teams

Bendersky, C., Bear, J. B., Behfar, K., Weingart, L. R., Todorova, G., & Jehn, K., (2014). Identifying gaps between the conceptualization of conflict and its measurement. In O. B. Ayoko, N. M. Ashkanasy, & K. A. Jehn (Eds.) Handbook of Conflict Management­ Research (pp. 79-89). UK: Edward Edgar Publishing.

Cooper, B., Giordano, C. R., Erez, A., Foulk, T. A., Reed, H., & Berg, K. B. (2021). Trapped by a first hypothesis: How rudeness leads to anchoring. Journal of Applied Psychology. Preprint available:

Cronin, M. A., Bezrukova, K., Weingart, L. R., & Tinsley, C. (2011). Subgroups within a team: The role of cognitive and affective integration. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 32, 831-849.

Cronin, M.A., Weingart, L.R., & Todorova, G. (2011). Dynamics in groups: Are we there yet? The Academy of Management Annals, 5, 571-612.

De Dreu, C. K. W. & Weingart, L. R. (2003). A contingency theory of task conflict and performance in groups and organizational teams. In M. West, D. Tjosvold, & K. Smith (Eds.) International Handbook of Organizational Teamwork and Cooperative Working (pp. 151-165). Chichester, England: Wiley.

De Dreu, C. K. W., & Weingart, L. R. (2003). Task versus relationship conflict, team performance, and team member satisfaction: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 741–749.

Goh, K., Krackhardt, D., Koh, T. K., & Weingart, L. R. (2014). The role of Simmelian friendship ties on retaliation with triads. Small Group Research, 45 471-505.

Halevy, N., Cohen, T. R., Chou, E. Y., Katz, J. J., & Panter, A. T. (2014). Mental models at work: Cognitive causes and consequences of conflict in organizations. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 40(1), 92-110.

Thompson, L. & Cohen, T. R. (2011). Metacognition in teams and organizations. In P. Brinol & K. G. DeMarree (Eds.), Social metacognition (pp. 283-302). New York: Psychology Press.

Todorova, G., Brake, M., & Weingart, L.R. (2020). Work design and task conflict in interdisciplinary groups. International Journal of Conflict Management, 31, 623-646.

Todorova, G., Goh, K., & Weingart, L.R. (2021). The effects of conflict type and conflict expression intensity on conflict management. International Journal of Conflict Management. Preprint available:

Weingart, L. R. (1992). Impact of group goals, task component complexity, effort, and planning on group performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 77, 682-693.

Weingart, L. R. (1997). How did they do that? The ways and means of studying group processes. In L. L. Cummings & B. M. Staw (Eds.), Research in Organizational Behavior, (Vol. 19, pp. 189-239). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.

Weingart, L. R. (2012). Studying dynamics within groups. In M. A. Neale and E. A. Mannix (Eds.), Looking Back, Moving Forward: A Review of Group and Team-Based Research (Research in Managing Groups and Teams, Vol. 15, pp. 1-25). Bingley, UK: Emerald.

Weingart, L. R. & Jehn, K. A. (2009). Manage intra-team conflict through collaboration. In E. A. Locke (Ed.), Handbook of Principles of Organizational Behavior: Indispensable Knowledge for Evidence-Based Management, 2nd Edition (pp. 327-346). Chichester, UK: Wiley. (Revision of chapter from 1st Edition, published in 2000).

Weingart, L. R., & Cronin, M. A. (2009). Teams research in the 21st century: A case for theory consolidation. In E. Salas, G. F. Goodwin, & C. S. Burke (Eds.). Team Effectiveness in Complex Organizations: Cross-disciplinary perspectives (SIOP Organizational Frontier Series; pp. 509-524). New York: Psychology Press.

Weingart, L. R., & Goh, K. (2010). Research methods and issues. In J. M. Levine & M. A. Hogg (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Group Processes and Intergroup Relations (pp. 698-706). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Weldon, E., & Weingart, L. R. (1993). Group goals and group performance. British Journal of Social Psychology, 32, 307-334.

Innovation in Interdisciplinary Teams

Boni, A. A., & Weingart, L. R. (2012). Building teams in entrepreneurial companies. Journal of Commercial Biotechnology, 18, 31-37.

Boni, A. A., Weingart, L. R., & Todorova, G. (2020). Building, managing, and motivating great teams. In C. Shimasaki (Ed.), Biotechnology Entrepreneurship: Leading, Managing, and Commercializing Innovative Technologies, Second Edition (pp. 85-97). London: Academic Press, Elsevier.

Boni, A. A., Weingart. L. R., & Evenson, S. (2009). Innovation in an academic setting: Designing and leading a business through market- focused, interdisciplinary teams. Academy of Management Learning and Education, 8, 407-417.

Cagan, J., Vogel, C. M., & Weingart, L. R. (September, 2001). Understanding perceptual gaps in integrated product development teams. Proceedings of the DETC ’01, ASME 2001 (the Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers) Pittsburgh, PA. DETC2001/DTM-21681.

Cronin, M. A. & Weingart, L. R. (2007). Representational gaps, information processing, and conflict in functionally diverse teams. Academy of Management Review, 32, 761-773.

Cronin, M. A., & Weingart, L. R. (2007). The differential effects of trust and respect on team conflict. In K. J. Behfar and L. L. Thompson, Conflict in Organizational Groups: New Directions in Theory and Practice (pp. 205-228). Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press.

Dahlin, K. B., Weingart, L. R., & Hinds, P. J. (2005). Team diversity and information use. Academy of Management Journal, 48, 1107-1123.

Goh, K., Goodman, P. S., & Weingart, L. R. (2013). Team innovation processes: An examination of activity cycles in creative project teams. Small Group Research, 44, 159-194.

Lovelace, K., Shapiro, D. L., & Weingart, L. R. (2001). Maximizing crossfunctional new product teams’ innovativeness and constraint adherence: A conflict communications perspective. Academy of Management Journal, 44(4) 779-783.

Todorova, G., Brake, M., & Weingart, L.R. (2020). Work design and task conflict in interdisciplinary groups. International Journal of Conflict Management.

Weingart, L. R., Cronin, M. A., Houser, C. J. S., Cagan, J., & Vogel, C. (2005). Functional diversity and conflict in cross-functional product development teams: Considering representational gaps and task characteristics. In L. L. Neider & C. A. Schriesheim (Eds.), Understanding Teams (pp. 89-110). Greenwich, CT: IAP.

Weingart, L. R., Todorova, G., & Cronin, M. A. (2010). Task conflict, problem solving, and yielding: Effects on cognition and performance in functionally diverse innovation teams. Negotiation and Conflict Management Research (special issue on Asymmetry in Conflict), 3, 312-337.

Communication and Honesty in Difficult Conversations

Cohen, T. R., Wildschut, T., & Insko, C. A. (2010). How communication increases interpersonal cooperation in mixed-motive situations. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46, 39-50.

Cronin, M. A., & Weingart, L. R. (2019). Conflict across representational gaps: Threats to and opportunities for improved communication. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS), 116(16), 7642-7649.

Forest, A.L., Walsh, R.M. and Krueger, K.L. (2021), Facilitating and motivating support: How support-seekers can affect the support they receive in times of distress. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 15: e12600.

Ho, V., Weingart, L. R., & Rousseau, D. M. (2004). Responses to broken promises: Does personality matter? Journal of Vocational Behavior, 65, 276-293.

Krueger, K. L. & Forest, A. L. (2020). Communicating commitment: A relationship-protection account of dyadic displays on social media, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin.

Levine, E. E., & Cohen, T. R. (2018). You can handle the truth: Mispredicting the consequences of honest communication. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 147, 1400-1429.

Levine, E. E., Roberts, A. R., & Cohen, T. R. (2020). Difficult conversations: Navigating the tension between honesty and benevolence. Current Opinion in Psychology, 31, 38-43.

Olekalns, M., Putnam, L. L., Weingart, L. R., & Metcalf, L. (2007). Communication processes and conflict management. In De Dreu, C.K.W. & Gelfand, M. J. (Eds.), The Psychology of Conflict and Conflict Management in Organizations (SIOP Organizational Frontier Series; pp. 81-114). New York: Psychology Press.

Weingart, L. R., Behfar, K., Bendersky, C., Todorova, G., & Jehn, K. A. (2015). The directness and oppositional intensity of conflict expression. Academy of Management Review, 40, 235-262.

Collaboration and Conflict in Healthcare

Diabes, M. A., Ervin, J. N., Davis, B. S., Rak, K. J., Cohen, T. R., Weingart, L. R., & Kahn, J. M. (accepted December 2020). Psychological safety in Intensive Care Unit rounding teams. Annals of the American Thoracic Society.

Ervin, J. N., Kahn, J. M., Cohen, T. R., Weingart, L. R. (2018). Teamwork in the intensive care unit. American Psychologist, 73, 468-477.

McGuier, E. A., Kolko, D. J., Klem, M. L., Feldman, J., Kinkler, G., Diabes, M. A., ... & Wolk, C. B. (2021). Team functioning and implementation of innovations in healthcare and human service settings: a systematic review protocol. Systematic reviews, 10(1), 1-7.

Patterson, P.D., Weaver, M.D., Weaver, S., Rosen, M., Todorova, G., Weingart, L., Krackhardt, D., Lave, J., Arnold, R., Yealy, D., Salas, E. (2012). Measuring teamwork and conflict among Emergency Medical Technician personnel. Prehospital Emergency Care, 16, 98-108.

Riskin, A., Bamberger, P., Erez, A., Foulk, T., Cooper, B., Peterfreund, I., ... & Bamberger, E. (2019). Incivility and patient safety: a longitudinal study of rudeness, protocol compliance, and adverse events. The Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety, 45(5), 358-367.

Riskin, A., Bamberger, P., Erez, A., Riskin-Guez, K., Riskin, Y., Sela, R., ... & Bamberger, E. (2019). Expressions of gratitude and medical team performance. Pediatrics, 143(4), e20182043. 

Todorova, G., Bear, J., & Weingart, L. R. (2014). Can conflict be energizing? A study of task conflict, positive emotions, and job satisfaction. Journal of Applied Psychology, 99, 451-467.

Woolum, A, Echeto, LF, Cooper, B, et al. (2021). How witnessing rudeness can disrupt psycho-motor performance of dental students. Journal of Dental Education, 85: 1588– 1595.

Intergroup Conflict

Cohen, T. R. (2010). Conflict resolution. In I. B. Weiner & W. E. Craighead (Eds.), The Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology, 4th edition, Volume 1 (pp. 390-391). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Cohen, T. R., & Insko, C. A. (2008). War and peace: Possible approaches to reducing intergroup conflict. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 3, 87-93.

Cohen, T. R., & Insko, C. A. (2011). The reduction of intergroup conflict. In D. J. Christie (Ed.), The encyclopedia of peace psychology. Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley-Blackwell.

Cohen, T. R., Meier, B. P., Hinsz, V. B., & Insko, C. A. (2010). Competitive group interactions: Why they exist and how to overcome them. In S. Schuman (Ed.), The Handbook for Working with Difficult Groups. (pp. 223-236). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Cohen, T. R., Montoya, R. M., & Insko, C. A. (2006). Group morality and intergroup relations: Cross-cultural and experimental evidence. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 32, 1559-1572.

Halevy, N. Chou, E. Y., Cohen, T. R., & Livingston, R. W. (2012). Status conferral in intergroup social dilemmas: Behavioral antecedents and consequences of prestige and dominance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 102(2), 351-366.

Halevy, N., & Cohen, T. R. (2019). Intergroup conflict 2020. Negotiation and Conflict Management Research, 12(2), 161-173.

Halevy, N., Chou, E., Cohen, T. R., & Bornstein, G. (2010). Relative deprivation and intergroup competition. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 13, 685-700.

Insko, C. A., Wildschut, T., & Cohen, T. R. (2013). Interindividual-intergroup discontinuity in the Prisoner's Dilemma Game: How common fate, proximity, and similarity affect intergroup competition. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 120, 168-180.

Wolf, S. T., Cohen, T. R., Kirchner, J. L., Rea, A., Montoya, R. M., & Insko, C. A. (2009). Reducing intergroup conflict through the consideration of future consequences. European Journal of Social Psychology, 39, 831-841. 


This research investigates the causes and consequences of (un)ethical decision making and behavior in the workplace.

Cohen, T. R., Helzer, E. G., & Creo, R.A. (2022). Honesty Among Lawyers: Moral Character, Game Framing, and Honest Disclosures in Negotiations. Negotiation Journal.

Cohen, T. R. (2017). The Morality Factor: How To Pick A Great Worker. Scientific American Mind Magazine, January issue, vol. 28, issue 1 (pp. 32-38).

Cohen, T. R., & Morse, L. (2014). Moral character: What it is and what it does. Research in Organizational Behavior, 34, 43-61.

Cohen, T. R., & Panter, A. T. (2015). Character traits in the workplace: A three-month diary study of moral and immoral organizational behaviors. In C. B. Miller, R. M. Furr, A. Knobel, & W. Fleeson (Eds.), Character: New directions from philosophy, psychology, and theology (pp. 150-163). New York, NY, US: Oxford University Press.

Cohen, T. R., Gunia, B. C., Kim-Jun, S. Y., & Murnighan, J. K. (2009). Do groups lie more than individuals? Honesty & deception as a function of strategic self-interest. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45, 1321-1324.

Cohen, T. R., Kim, Y., Jordan, K. P., & Panter, A. T. (2016). Guilt-proneness is a marker of integrity and employment suitability. Personality and Individual Differences, 92, 109-112.

Cohen, T. R., Panter, A. T., & Turan, N. (2012). Guilt proneness and moral character. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 21, 355-359.

Cohen, T. R., Panter, A. T., & Turan, N. (2013). Predicting counterproductive work behavior from guilt proneness. Journal of Business Ethics, 114, 45-53.

Cohen, T. R., Panter, A. T., Turan, N., Morse, L. A., & Kim, Y. (2013). Agreement and similarity in self-other perceptions of moral character. Journal of Research in Personality, 47, 816-830.

Cohen, T. R., Panter, A. T., Turan, N., Morse, L. A., & Kim, Y. (2014). Moral character in the workplace. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 107(5), 943-963.

Cohen, T. R., Wolf, S. T., Panter, A. T., & Insko, C. A. (2011). Introducing the GASP scale: A new measure of guilt and shame proneness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 100, 947-966.

Fulham, N. M., Krueger, K. L., & Cohen, T. R. (2022). Honest feedback: Barriers to receptivity and discerning the truth in feedback. Current Opinion in Psychology, 46:101405.

Halevy, N., Halali, E., & Cohen, T. R. (2019). Brokering orientations and social capital: Influencing others’ relationships shapes status and trust. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

Helzer, Erik G., Cohen, Taya R., & Kim, Yeonjeong. (2022). The character lens: A person-centered view of moral recognition and ethical decision-making. Journal of Business Ethics. Preprint available:

Hershfield, H. E., Cohen, T. R., & Thompson, L. (2012). Short horizons and tempting situations: Lack of continuity to our future selves leads to unethical decision making and behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 117, 298-310.

Jordan, J., Flynn, F., & Cohen, T. R. (2015). Forgive them for I have sinned: The relationship between guilt and forgiveness of others’ transgressions. European Journal of Social Psychology, 45(4), 441-459.

Kim, Y., & Cohen, T. R. (2015). Moral character and workplace deviance: Recent research and current trends. Current Opinion in Psychology, 6, 134-138.

Levine, E. E, Bitterly, T. B., Cohen, T. R., & Schweitzer, M. E. (2018). Who is trustworthy? Predicting trustworthy intentions and behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 115, 468-494.

Morse, L., & Cohen, T. R. (2015). Virtues and vices in workplace settings: The role of moral character in predicting counterproductive and citizenship behaviors. In A. J. G. Sison (Ed.), Handbook of Virtue Ethics in Business and Management, 1st edition. Springer Reference, pp. 1-11.

Morse, L., Cohen, T. R. (2020). The importance of the HEXACO model in behavioral business ethics: Comment on Ashton and Lee (2020). European Journal of Personality.

Turan, N., & Cohen, T. R. (2016). Shame and guilt. In H. S. Friedman (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Mental Health, 2nd edition, Vol 4 (pp. 144-146). Waltham, MA: Academic Press.

Wiltermuth, S. S., & Cohen, T. R. (2014). “I’d only let you down”: Guilt proneness and the avoidance of harmful interdependence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 107(5), 925-942.

Wolf, S. T., Cohen, T. R., Panter, A. T., & Insko, C. A. (2010). Shame proneness and guilt proneness: Toward the further understanding of reactions to public and private transgressions. Self and Identity, 9, 337-362.


This research investigates multiparty and team negotiations, negotiation dynamics, moral character in negotiations, and negotiator cognition.

Multiparty and Team Negotiation

Cohen, T. R., & Thompson, L. (2011). When are teams an asset in negotiations and when are they a liability? In E. A. Mannix, M. A. Neale, J. R. Overbeck (Eds.), Research on Managing Groups and Teams: Negotiation and Groups, Vol. 14 (pp. 3-34). Bingley, United Kingdom: Emerald Group Publishing.

Cohen, T. R., Leonardelli, G. J., & Thompson, L. (2014). Avoiding the agreement trap: Teams facilitate impasse in negotiations with negative bargaining zones. Negotiation and Conflict Management Research, 7(4), 232-242.

De Dreu, C. K. W., Weingart, L. R. & Kwon, S. (2000). Influence of social motives on integrative negotiations: A meta-analytic review and test of two theories. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 889-905.

Gillespie, J. J., Brett, J. M., & Weingart, L. R. (2000). Interdependence, social motives, and outcome satisfaction in multiparty negotiation. European Journal of Social Psychology, 30(6), 779-797.<779::AID-EJSP15>3.0.CO;2-7

Kern, M. C., Brett, J. M., Weingart, L. R., & Eck, C. (2020). The “fixed” pie perception and strategy in dyadic versus multiparty negotiations. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 157, 143-158.

Turan, N., Dudik, M., Gordon, G., & Weingart, L. R. (2011). Modeling group negotiation: Three computational approaches that can inform behavioral sciences. In E. A. Mannix, M. A. Neale, & J. R. Overbeck (Eds.), Research on Managing Groups and Teams: Negotiation and Groups (Vol. 14, pp. 189-205). Bingley, UK: Emerald.

Weingart, L. R., Bennett, R. J., & Brett, J. M. (1993). The impact of consideration of issues and motivational orientation on group negotiation process and outcome. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 504-517.

Weingart, L. R., Brett, J. M., Olekalns, M., & Smith, P. L. (2007). Conflicting social motives in negotiating groups. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 93, 994-1010.

Negotiation Dynamics

Brett, J. M., Weingart, L. R., & Olekalns, M. (2004). Baubles, bangles and beads: Modeling the evolution of negotiating groups over time. In E. A. Mannix, M. A. Neale, & S. Blount-Lyon (Eds.), Research in Managing Groups and Teams: Time in Groups (Volume 6, pp. 39-64). New York: Elsevier Science.

Kern, M. C., Brett, J. M., & Weingart, L. R. (2005). Getting the floor: Motive-consistent strategy and individual outcomes in multi-party negotiations. Group Decision and Negotiation, 14, 21-41.

Kwon, S., & Weingart, L. R. (2004). Unilateral concessions from the other party: Concession behavior, attributions, and negotiation judgments. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89(2), 263-278.

Olekalns, M., & Weingart, L. R. (2008). Emergent negotiations: Stability and shifts in negotiation dynamics. Negotiation and Conflict Management Research, 1, 135-160.

Olekalns, M., Brett, J.M., & Weingart, L. R. (2003). Phases, transitions and interruptions: Modeling processes in multi-party negotiations. International Journal of Conflict Management, 14, 191-211.

Olekalns, M., Smith, P. L., & Weingart, L. R. (2012). Markov chain models of negotiators’ communication. In D. J. Christie (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Peace Psychology (pp. 608-612). Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley-Blackwell.

Prietula, M. J., & Weingart, L. R. (2011). Negotiation offers and the search for agreement. Negotiation and Conflict Management Research, 4, 77-109.

Smith, P. L., Olekalns, M., & Weingart, L. R. (2005). Markov chain models of communication processes in negotiation. International Negotiation, 10, 97-113.

Weingart, L. R., & Olekalns, M. (2004). Communication processes in negotiation: Frequencies, sequences, and phases. In M. J. Gelfand & J. M. Brett (Eds.) The Handbook of Negotiation and Culture (pp. 143-157). Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press.

Weingart, L. R., & Olekalns, M. (2012). Quantitative methods and coding. In D. J. Christie (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Peace Psychology (pp. 920-924). Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley-Blackwell.

Weingart, L. R., Olekalns, M., & Smith, P. L. (2004). Quantitative coding of negotiation behavior. International Negotiation, 9, 441-455. Reprinted in P. Carnevale & C.K.W. De Dreu (Eds.), Methods of Negotiation Research (pp. 105-120). Leiden, The Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff.

Weingart, L. R., Prietula, M. J., Hyder, E., & Genovese, C. (1999). Knowledge and the sequential processes of negotiation: A Markov chain analysis of response-in-kind. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 35, 366-393.

Weingart, L. R., Thompson, L. L., Bazerman, M. H., & Carroll, J. S. (1990). Tactical behavior and negotiation outcomes. International Journal of Conflict Management, 1, 7-31.

Moral Character

Cohen, T. R., Helzer, E. G., & Creo, R.A. (2022). Honesty among lawyers: Moral character, game framing, and honest disclosures in negotiations. Negotiation Journal, 38(2), 199-234.

Cohen, T. R. (2010). Moral emotions & unethical bargaining: The differential effects of empathy and perspective taking in deterring deceitful negotiation. Journal of Business Ethics, 94, 569-579. doi:

Cohen, T. R. (2017). Moral character and trustworthiness in negotiations. In A. K. Schneider and C. Honeyman (Eds.), The Negotiator’s Desk Reference, Vol 1 (pp. 471-480). DRI Press.

Cohen, Taya R., Helzer, Erik G., & Creo, Robert A. (2022). Honesty among lawyers: Moral character, game framing, and honest disclosures in negotiations. Negotiation Journal. Preprint available:

Morse, L. & Cohen, T. R. (2019). Moral character in negotiation. Academy of Management Perspectives, 33, 12-25.

Negotiator Cognition

Hyder, E. B., Prietula, M. J., & Weingart, L. R. (2000). Getting to best: Efficiency versus optimality in negotiation. Cognitive Science, 24(2), 169-204. https://10.1207/s15516709cog2402_1

Kern, M. C., Brett, J. M., Weingart, L. R., & Eck, C. (2020). The “fixed” pie perception and strategy in dyadic versus multiparty negotiations. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 157, 143-158.

Prietula, M. J., & Weingart, L. R. (1994). Negotiation as problem solving. In Meindl, J., Porac, J., & Stubbart, C. (Eds.), Advances in Managerial Cognition and Organizational Information Processing (Vol. 5, pp. 187-213). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.

Turan, N., Dai, T., Sycara, K., & Weingart, L. (2013). Toward a unified negotiation framework: Leveraging strengths in behavioral and computational communities. In K. Sycara, M. Gelfand, & A. Abbe (Eds.) Advances in Group Decision and Negotiation: Models for Intercultural Collaboration and Negotiation (Vol. 6, pp. 53-65). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer Science.


Simosi, M., Rousseau, D. M., & Weingart, L. R. (2021). Opening the black box of I-deals negotiation: Integrating I-deals and negotiation research. Group and Organization Management. 46(2), 186-222. 

This research investigates the role of gender and national culture in negotiation and conflict management, and work imbalance and work overload that women experience when they are overallocated non-promotable tasks.

Adair, W., Weingart, L.R., & Brett, J. (2007). The timing and function of offers in U.S. and Japanese negotiations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 1056-1068.

Aslani, S., Ramirez-Marin, J., Brett, J., Yao, J., Semnani-Azad, Z., Zhang, Z.-X., Tinsley, C., Weingart, L., & Adair, W. (2016). Dignity, face, and honor cultures: A study of negotiation strategy and outcomes in three cultures. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 37, 1178-1201.

Babcock, L., Recalde, M., Vesterlund, L., & Weingart, L. (2017). Gender differences in accepting and receiving requests for tasks with low promotability. American Economic Review, 107(3), 1-35.

Bear, J. B., Weingart, L. R., & Todorova, G. (2014). Gender and the emotional experience of relationship conflict: The differential effects of avoidant conflict management. Negotiation and Conflict Management Research, 7, 213-231.

Cohen, T. R., Hall, D. L., & Tuttle, J. (2009). Attitudes toward stereotypical versus counterstereotypical gay men and lesbians. Journal of Sex Research, 46, 1-8.

Tinsley, C. H., Turan, N. M., Aslani, S., & Weingart, L. R. (2011). The interplay between culturally- and situationally-based mental models of intercultural dispute resolution: West meets Middle East. International Negotiation Journal, 16, 481-510. (Special Issue on Culture and Negotiation).

Tinsley, C. H., Turan, N., Weingart, L. R., & Dillon, R. L. (2012). How cultural stereotyping influences intercultural negotiation. In B. M. Goldman and D. L. Shapiro (Eds.), The Psychology of Negotiations in the 21st Century Workplace: New Challenges and New Solutions (SIOP Organizational Frontier Series) (pp. 269-291). New York: Routledge Academic.

Young, I. F., Razavi, P., Cohen, T. R., Yang, Q., Alabèrnia-Segura, M., Sullivan, D. (2019). A multidimensional approach to the relationship between individualism-collectivism and guilt and shame. Emotion.