Carnegie Mellon University

Publications by Collaboration and Conflict Research Lab Members

CCRL research sheds light on how people navigate challenging interpersonal interactions and difficult conversations.

Collaboration and Conflict: Our research investigates collaboration and conflict in groups and teams, innovation in interdisciplinary teams, communication and honesty in difficult conversations, collaboration and conflict in healthcare, and intergroup conflict.

Moral Behavior: Our research investigates the causes and consequences of (un)ethical decision making and behavior in the workplace.

Negotiation: Our research investigates multiparty and team negotiations, negotiation dynamics, moral character in negotiations, and negotiator cognition.

Gender and Cultural Differences: Our research investigates the role of gender and national culture in negotiation and conflict management, and work imbalance and work overload that women experience when they are overallocated non-promotable tasks.


Collaboration and Conflict in Groups and Teams

Bendersky, C., Bear, J. B., Behfar, K., Weingart, L. R., Todorova, G., & Jehn, K., (2014). Identifying gaps between the conceptualization of conflict and its measurement. In O. B. Ayoko, N. M. Ashkanasy, & K. A. Jehn (Eds.) Handbook of Conflict Management­ Research (pp. 79-89). UK: Edward Edgar Publishing.

Cronin, M. A., Bezrukova, K., Weingart, L. R., & Tinsley, C. (2011). Subgroups within a team: The role of cognitive and affective integration. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 32, 831-849.

Cronin, M.A., Weingart, L.R., & Todorova, G. (2011). Dynamics in groups: Are we there yet? The Academy of Management Annals, 5, 571-612.

De Dreu, C. K. W. & Weingart, L. R. (2003). A contingency theory of task conflict and performance in groups and organizational teams. In M. West, D. Tjosvold, & K. Smith (Eds.) International Handbook of Organizational Teamwork and Cooperative Working (pp. 151-165). Chichester, England: Wiley.

De Dreu, C. K. W., & Weingart, L. R. (2003). Task versus relationship conflict, team performance, and team member satisfaction: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 741–749.

Goh, K., Krackhardt, D., Koh, T. K., & Weingart, L. R. (2014). The role of Simmelian friendship ties on retaliation with triads. Small Group Research, 45 471-505.

Halevy, N., Cohen, T. R., Chou, E. Y., Katz, J. J., & Panter, A. T. (2014). Mental models at work: Cognitive causes and consequences of conflict in organizations. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 40(1), 92-110.

Thompson, L. & Cohen, T. R. (2011). Metacognition in teams and organizations. In P. Brinol & K. G. DeMarree (Eds.), Social metacognition (pp. 283-302). New York: Psychology Press.

Weingart, L. R. (1992). Impact of group goals, task component complexity, effort, and planning on group performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 77, 682-693.

Weingart, L. R. (1997). How did they do that? The ways and means of studying group processes. In L. L. Cummings & B. M. Staw (Eds.), Research in Organizational Behavior, (Vol. 19, pp. 189-239). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.

Weingart, L. R. (2012). Studying dynamics within groups. In M. A. Neale and E. A. Mannix (Eds.), Looking Back, Moving Forward: A Review of Group and Team-Based Research (Research in Managing Groups and Teams, Vol. 15, pp. 1-25). Bingley, UK: Emerald.

Weingart, L. R. & Jehn, K. A. (2009). Manage intra-team conflict through collaboration. In E. A. Locke (Ed.), Handbook of Principles of Organizational Behavior: Indispensable Knowledge for Evidence-Based Management, 2nd Edition (pp. 327-346). Chichester, UK: Wiley. (Revision of chapter from 1st Edition, published in 2000).

Weingart, L. R., & Cronin, M. A. (2009). Teams research in the 21st century: A case for theory consolidation. In E. Salas, G. F. Goodwin, & C. S. Burke (Eds.). Team Effectiveness in Complex Organizations: Cross-disciplinary perspectives (SIOP Organizational Frontier Series; pp. 509-524). New York: Psychology Press.

Weingart, L. R., & Goh, K. (2010). Research methods and issues. In J. M. Levine & M. A. Hogg (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Group Processes and Intergroup Relations (pp. 698-706). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Weldon, E., & Weingart, L. R. (1993). Group goals and group performance. British Journal of Social Psychology, 32, 307-334.

Innovation in Interdisciplinary Teams

Boni, A. A., & Weingart, L. R. (2012). Building teams in entrepreneurial companies. Journal of Commercial Biotechnology, 18, 31-37.

Boni, A. A., Weingart, L. R., & Todorova, G. (2020). Building, managing, and motivating great teams. In C. Shimasaki (Ed.), Biotechnology Entrepreneurship: Leading, Managing, and Commercializing Innovative Technologies, Second Edition (pp. 85-97). London: Academic Press, Elsevier.

Boni, A. A., Weingart. L. R., & Evenson, S. (2009). Innovation in an academic setting: Designing and leading a business through market- focused, interdisciplinary teams. Academy of Management Learning and Education, 8, 407-417.

Cagan, J., Vogel, C. M., & Weingart, L. R. (September, 2001). Understanding perceptual gaps in integrated product development teams. Proceedings of the DETC ’01, ASME 2001 (the Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers) Pittsburgh, PA. DETC2001/DTM-21681.

Cronin, M. A. & Weingart, L. R. (2007). Representational gaps, information processing, and conflict in functionally diverse teams. Academy of Management Review, 32, 761-773.

Cronin, M. A., & Weingart, L. R. (2007). The differential effects of trust and respect on team conflict. In K. J. Behfar and L. L. Thompson, Conflict in Organizational Groups: New Directions in Theory and Practice (pp. 205-228). Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press.

Dahlin, K. B., Weingart, L. R., & Hinds, P. J. (2005). Team diversity and information use. Academy of Management Journal, 48, 1107-1123.

Goh, K., Goodman, P. S., & Weingart, L. R. (2013). Team innovation processes: An examination of activity cycles in creative project teams. Small Group Research, 44, 159-194.

Lovelace, K., Shapiro, D. L., & Weingart, L. R. (2001). Maximizing crossfunctional new product teams’ innovativeness and constraint adherence: A conflict communications perspective. Academy of Management Journal, 44(4) 779-783.

Todorova, G., Brake, M., & Weingart, L.R. (2020). Work design and task conflict in interdisciplinary groups. International Journal of Conflict Management.

Weingart, L. R., Cronin, M. A., Houser, C. J. S., Cagan, J., & Vogel, C. (2005). Functional diversity and conflict in cross-functional product development teams: Considering representational gaps and task characteristics. In L. L. Neider & C. A. Schriesheim (Eds.), Understanding Teams (pp. 89-110). Greenwich, CT: IAP.

Weingart, L. R., Todorova, G., & Cronin, M. A. (2010). Task conflict, problem solving, and yielding: Effects on cognition and performance in functionally diverse innovation teams. Negotiation and Conflict Management Research (special issue on Asymmetry in Conflict), 3, 312-337.

Communication and Honesty in Difficult Conversations

Cohen, T. R., Wildschut, T., & Insko, C. A. (2010). How communication increases interpersonal cooperation in mixed-motive situations. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46, 39-50.

Cronin, M. A., & Weingart, L. R. (2019). Conflict across representational gaps: Threats to and opportunities for improved communication. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS), 116(16), 7642-7649.

Ho, V., Weingart, L. R., & Rousseau, D. M. (2004). Responses to broken promises: Does personality matter? Journal of Vocational Behavior, 65, 276-293.

Krueger, K. L. & Forest, A. L. (2020). Communicating commitment: A relationship-protection account of dyadic displays on social media, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin.

Levine, E. E., & Cohen, T. R. (2018). You can handle the truth: Mispredicting the consequences of honest communication. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 147, 1400-1429.

Levine, E. E., Roberts, A. R., & Cohen, T. R. (2020). Difficult conversations: Navigating the tension between honesty and benevolence. Current Opinion in Psychology, 31, 38-43.

Olekalns, M., Putnam, L. L., Weingart, L. R., & Metcalf, L. (2007). Communication processes and conflict management. In De Dreu, C.K.W. & Gelfand, M. J. (Eds.), The Psychology of Conflict and Conflict Management in Organizations (SIOP Organizational Frontier Series; pp. 81-114). New York: Psychology Press.

Weingart, L. R., Behfar, K., Bendersky, C., Todorova, G., & Jehn, K. A. (2015). The directness and oppositional intensity of conflict expression. Academy of Management Review, 40, 235-262.

Collaboration and Conflict in Healthcare

Ervin, J. N., Kahn, J. M., Cohen, T. R., Weingart, L. R. (2018). Teamwork in the intensive care unit. American Psychologist, 73, 468-477.

Patterson, P.D., Weaver, M.D., Weaver, S., Rosen, M., Todorova, G., Weingart, L., Krackhardt, D., Lave, J., Arnold, R., Yealy, D., Salas, E. (2012). Measuring teamwork and conflict among Emergency Medical Technician personnel. Prehospital Emergency Care, 16, 98-108.

Riskin, A., Bamberger, P., Erez, A., Foulk, T., Cooper, B., Peterfreund, I., ... & Bamberger, E. (2019). Incivility and patient safety: a longitudinal study of rudeness, protocol compliance, and adverse events. The Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety, 45(5), 358-367.

Riskin, A., Bamberger, P., Erez, A., Riskin-Guez, K., Riskin, Y., Sela, R., ... & Bamberger, E. (2019). Expressions of gratitude and medical team performance. Pediatrics, 143(4), e20182043. 

Todorova, G., Bear, J., & Weingart, L. R. (2014). Can conflict be energizing? A study of task conflict, positive emotions, and job satisfaction. Journal of Applied Psychology, 99, 451-467.

Intergroup Conflict

Cohen, T. R. (2010). Conflict resolution. In I. B. Weiner & W. E. Craighead (Eds.), The Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology, 4th edition, Volume 1 (pp. 390-391). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Cohen, T. R., & Insko, C. A. (2008). War and peace: Possible approaches to reducing intergroup conflict. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 3, 87-93.

Cohen, T. R., & Insko, C. A. (2011). The reduction of intergroup conflict. In D. J. Christie (Ed.), The encyclopedia of peace psychology. Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley-Blackwell.

Cohen, T. R., Meier, B. P., Hinsz, V. B., & Insko, C. A. (2010). Competitive group interactions: Why they exist and how to overcome them. In S. Schuman (Ed.), The Handbook for Working with Difficult Groups. (pp. 223-236). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Cohen, T. R., Montoya, R. M., & Insko, C. A. (2006). Group morality and intergroup relations: Cross-cultural and experimental evidence. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 32, 1559-1572.

Halevy, N. Chou, E. Y., Cohen, T. R., & Livingston, R. W. (2012). Status conferral in intergroup social dilemmas: Behavioral antecedents and consequences of prestige and dominance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 102(2), 351-366.

Halevy, N., & Cohen, T. R. (2019). Intergroup conflict 2020. Negotiation and Conflict Management Research, 12(2), 161-173.

Halevy, N., Chou, E., Cohen, T. R., & Bornstein, G. (2010). Relative deprivation and intergroup competition. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 13, 685-700.

Insko, C. A., Wildschut, T., & Cohen, T. R. (2013). Interindividual-intergroup discontinuity in the Prisoner's Dilemma Game: How common fate, proximity, and similarity affect intergroup competition. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 120, 168-180.

Wolf, S. T., Cohen, T. R., Kirchner, J. L., Rea, A., Montoya, R. M., & Insko, C. A. (2009). Reducing intergroup conflict through the consideration of future consequences. European Journal of Social Psychology, 39, 831-841. 



Cohen, T. R. (2017). The Morality Factor: How To Pick A Great Worker. Scientific American Mind Magazine, January issue, vol. 28, issue 1 (pp. 32-38).

Cohen, T. R., & Morse, L. (2014). Moral character: What it is and what it does. Research in Organizational Behavior, 34, 43-61.

Cohen, T. R., & Panter, A. T. (2015). Character traits in the workplace: A three-month diary study of moral and immoral organizational behaviors. In C. B. Miller, R. M. Furr, A. Knobel, & W. Fleeson (Eds.), Character: New directions from philosophy, psychology, and theology (pp. 150-163). New York, NY, US: Oxford University Press.

Cohen, T. R., Gunia, B. C., Kim-Jun, S. Y., & Murnighan, J. K. (2009). Do groups lie more than individuals? Honesty & deception as a function of strategic self-interest. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45, 1321-1324.

Cohen, T. R., Kim, Y., Jordan, K. P., & Panter, A. T. (2016). Guilt-proneness is a marker of integrity and employment suitability. Personality and Individual Differences, 92, 109-112.

Cohen, T. R., Panter, A. T., & Turan, N. (2012). Guilt proneness and moral character. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 21, 355-359.

Cohen, T. R., Panter, A. T., & Turan, N. (2013). Predicting counterproductive work behavior from guilt proneness. Journal of Business Ethics, 114, 45-53.

Cohen, T. R., Panter, A. T., Turan, N., Morse, L. A., & Kim, Y. (2013). Agreement and similarity in self-other perceptions of moral character. Journal of Research in Personality, 47, 816-830.

Cohen, T. R., Panter, A. T., Turan, N., Morse, L. A., & Kim, Y. (2014). Moral character in the workplace. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 107(5), 943-963.

Cohen, T. R., Wolf, S. T., Panter, A. T., & Insko, C. A. (2011). Introducing the GASP scale: A new measure of guilt and shame proneness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 100, 947-966.

Halevy, N., Halali, E., & Cohen, T. R. (2019). Brokering orientations and social capital: Influencing others’ relationships shapes status and trust. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

Hershfield, H. E., Cohen, T. R., & Thompson, L. (2012). Short horizons and tempting situations: Lack of continuity to our future selves leads to unethical decision making and behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 117, 298-310.

Jordan, J., Flynn, F., & Cohen, T. R. (2015). Forgive them for I have sinned: The relationship between guilt and forgiveness of others’ transgressions. European Journal of Social Psychology, 45(4), 441-459.

Kim, Y., & Cohen, T. R. (2015). Moral character and workplace deviance: Recent research and current trends. Current Opinion in Psychology, 6, 134-138.

Levine, E. E, Bitterly, T. B., Cohen, T. R., & Schweitzer, M. E. (2018). Who is trustworthy? Predicting trustworthy intentions and behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 115, 468-494.

Morse, L., & Cohen, T. R. (2015). Virtues and vices in workplace settings: The role of moral character in predicting counterproductive and citizenship behaviors. In A. J. G. Sison (Ed.), Handbook of Virtue Ethics in Business and Management, 1st edition. Springer Reference, pp. 1-11.

Morse, L., Cohen, T. R. (2020). The importance of the HEXACO model in behavioral business ethics: Comment on Ashton and Lee (2020). European Journal of Personality.

Turan, N., & Cohen, T. R. (2016). Shame and guilt. In H. S. Friedman (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Mental Health, 2nd edition, Vol 4 (pp. 144-146). Waltham, MA: Academic Press.

Wiltermuth, S. S., & Cohen, T. R. (2014). “I’d only let you down”: Guilt proneness and the avoidance of harmful interdependence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 107(5), 925-942.

Wolf, S. T., Cohen, T. R., Panter, A. T., & Insko, C. A. (2010). Shame proneness and guilt proneness: Toward the further understanding of reactions to public and private transgressions. Self and Identity, 9, 337-362.



Multiparty and Team Negotiation

Cohen, T. R., & Thompson, L. (2011). When are teams an asset in negotiations and when are they a liability? In E. A. Mannix, M. A. Neale, J. R. Overbeck (Eds.), Research on Managing Groups and Teams: Negotiation and Groups, Vol. 14 (pp. 3-34). Bingley, United Kingdom: Emerald Group Publishing.

Cohen, T. R., Leonardelli, G. J., & Thompson, L. (2014). Avoiding the agreement trap: Teams facilitate impasse in negotiations with negative bargaining zones. Negotiation and Conflict Management Research, 7(4), 232-242.

De Dreu, C. K. W., Weingart, L. R. & Kwon, S. (2000). Influence of social motives on integrative negotiations: A meta-analytic review and test of two theories. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 889-905.

Gillespie, J. J., Brett, J. M., & Weingart, L. R. (2000). Interdependence, social motives, and outcome satisfaction in multiparty negotiation. European Journal of Social Psychology, 30(6), 779-797.<779::AID-EJSP15>3.0.CO;2-7

Kern, M. C., Brett, J. M., Weingart, L. R., & Eck, C. (2020). The “fixed” pie perception and strategy in dyadic versus multiparty negotiations. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 157, 143-158.

Turan, N., Dudik, M., Gordon, G., & Weingart, L. R. (2011). Modeling group negotiation: Three computational approaches that can inform behavioral sciences. In E. A. Mannix, M. A. Neale, & J. R. Overbeck (Eds.), Research on Managing Groups and Teams: Negotiation and Groups (Vol. 14, pp. 189-205). Bingley, UK: Emerald.

Weingart, L. R., Bennett, R. J., & Brett, J. M. (1993). The impact of consideration of issues and motivational orientation on group negotiation process and outcome. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 504-517.

Weingart, L. R., Brett, J. M., Olekalns, M., & Smith, P. L. (2007). Conflicting social motives in negotiating groups. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 93, 994-1010.

Negotiation Dynamics

Brett, J. M., Weingart, L. R., & Olekalns, M. (2004). Baubles, bangles and beads: Modeling the evolution of negotiating groups over time. In E. A. Mannix, M. A. Neale, & S. Blount-Lyon (Eds.), Research in Managing Groups and Teams: Time in Groups (Volume 6, pp. 39-64). New York: Elsevier Science.

Kern, M. C., Brett, J. M., & Weingart, L. R. (2005). Getting the floor: Motive-consistent strategy and individual outcomes in multi-party negotiations. Group Decision and Negotiation, 14, 21-41.

Kwon, S., & Weingart, L. R. (2004). Unilateral concessions from the other party: Concession behavior, attributions, and negotiation judgments. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89(2), 263-278.

Olekalns, M., & Weingart, L. R. (2008). Emergent negotiations: Stability and shifts in negotiation dynamics. Negotiation and Conflict Management Research, 1, 135-160.

Olekalns, M., Brett, J.M., & Weingart, L. R. (2003). Phases, transitions and interruptions: Modeling processes in multi-party negotiations. International Journal of Conflict Management, 14, 191-211.

Olekalns, M., Smith, P. L., & Weingart, L. R. (2012). Markov chain models of negotiators’ communication. In D. J. Christie (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Peace Psychology (pp. 608-612). Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley-Blackwell.

Prietula, M. J., & Weingart, L. R. (2011). Negotiation offers and the search for agreement. Negotiation and Conflict Management Research, 4, 77-109.

Smith, P. L., Olekalns, M., & Weingart, L. R. (2005). Markov chain models of communication processes in negotiation. International Negotiation, 10, 97-113.

Weingart, L. R., & Olekalns, M. (2004). Communication processes in negotiation: Frequencies, sequences, and phases. In M. J. Gelfand & J. M. Brett (Eds.) The Handbook of Negotiation and Culture (pp. 143-157). Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press.

Weingart, L. R., & Olekalns, M. (2012). Quantitative methods and coding. In D. J. Christie (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Peace Psychology (pp. 920-924). Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley-Blackwell.

Weingart, L. R., Olekalns, M., & Smith, P. L. (2004). Quantitative coding of negotiation behavior. International Negotiation, 9, 441-455. Reprinted in P. Carnevale & C.K.W. De Dreu (Eds.), Methods of Negotiation Research (pp. 105-120). Leiden, The Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff.

Weingart, L. R., Prietula, M. J., Hyder, E., & Genovese, C. (1999). Knowledge and the sequential processes of negotiation: A Markov chain analysis of response-in-kind. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 35, 366-393.

Weingart, L. R., Thompson, L. L., Bazerman, M. H., & Carroll, J. S. (1990). Tactical behavior and negotiation outcomes. International Journal of Conflict Management, 1, 7-31.

Moral Character

Cohen, T. R. (2010). Moral emotions & unethical bargaining: The differential effects of empathy and perspective taking in deterring deceitful negotiation. Journal of Business Ethics, 94, 569-579. doi:

Cohen, T. R. (2017). Moral character and trustworthiness in negotiations. In A. K. Schneider and C. Honeyman (Eds.), The Negotiator’s Desk Reference, Vol 1 (pp. 471-480). DRI Press.

Morse, L. & Cohen, T. R. (2019). Moral character in negotiation. Academy of Management Perspectives, 33, 12-25.

Negotiator Cognition

Hyder, E. B., Prietula, M. J., & Weingart, L. R. (2000). Getting to best: Efficiency versus optimality in negotiation. Cognitive Science, 24(2), 169-204. https://10.1207/s15516709cog2402_1

Prietula, M. J., & Weingart, L. R. (1994). Negotiation as problem solving. In Meindl, J., Porac, J., & Stubbart, C. (Eds.), Advances in Managerial Cognition and Organizational Information Processing (Vol. 5, pp. 187-213). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.

Turan, N., Dai, T., Sycara, K., & Weingart, L. (2013). Toward a unified negotiation framework: Leveraging strengths in behavioral and computational communities. In K. Sycara, M. Gelfand, & A. Abbe (Eds.) Advances in Group Decision and Negotiation: Models for Intercultural Collaboration and Negotiation (Vol. 6, pp. 53-65). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer Science.



Adair, W., Weingart, L.R., & Brett, J. (2007). The timing and function of offers in U.S. and Japanese negotiations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 1056-1068.

Aslani, S., Ramirez-Marin, J., Brett, J., Yao, J., Semnani-Azad, Z., Zhang, Z.-X., Tinsley, C., Weingart, L., & Adair, W. (2016). Dignity, face, and honor cultures: A study of negotiation strategy and outcomes in three cultures. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 37, 1178-1201.

Babcock, L., Recalde, M., Vesterlund, L., & Weingart, L. (2017). Gender differences in accepting and receiving requests for tasks with low promotability. American Economic Review, 107(3), 1-35.

Bear, J. B., Weingart, L. R., & Todorova, G. (2014). Gender and the emotional experience of relationship conflict: The differential effects of avoidant conflict management. Negotiation and Conflict Management Research, 7, 213-231.

Cohen, T. R., Hall, D. L., & Tuttle, J. (2009). Attitudes toward stereotypical versus counterstereotypical gay men and lesbians. Journal of Sex Research, 46, 1-8.

Tinsley, C. H., Turan, N. M., Aslani, S., & Weingart, L. R. (2011). The interplay between culturally- and situationally-based mental models of intercultural dispute resolution: West meets Middle East. International Negotiation Journal, 16, 481-510. (Special Issue on Culture and Negotiation).

Tinsley, C. H., Turan, N., Weingart, L. R., & Dillon, R. L. (2012). How cultural stereotyping influences intercultural negotiation. In B. M. Goldman and D. L. Shapiro (Eds.), The Psychology of Negotiations in the 21st Century Workplace: New Challenges and New Solutions (SIOP Organizational Frontier Series) (pp. 269-291). New York: Routledge Academic.

Young, I. F., Razavi, P., Cohen, T. R., Yang, Q., Alabèrnia-Segura, M., Sullivan, D. (2019). A multidimensional approach to the relationship between individualism-collectivism and guilt and shame. Emotion.