Carnegie Mellon University

Publications of David Klahr

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Klahr, D. (1966). A computer simulation of the paradox of voting. American Political Science Review, LX , 384-390.
Klahr, D., & Leavitt, H.J. (1967). Tasks, organization structures and computer programs. In C.A. Meyers(Ed.), The impact of computers on management . Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Klahr, D. (1969). Decision making in a complex environment. Management Science, 15, 595-618.
Klahr, D. (1969). Monte Carlo investigation of the statistical significance of Kruskal's nonmetric scaling procedure. Psychometrika, 34(3)
Klahr, D. (1970). A study of consumers' cognitive structure for cigarette brands. Journal of Business, 43, 190-204.
Klahr, D., & Wallace, J. G. (1970). The development of serial completion strategies: An information processing analysis. British Journal of Psychology, 61, 243-257.
Klahr, D., & Wallace, J. G. (1970). An information processing analysis of some Piagetian experimental tasks. Cognitive Psychology, 1, 358-387.
Klahr, D., & Wallace, J. G. (1973). The role of quantification operators in the development of conservation of quantity. Cognitive Psychology, 4, 301-327.
Klahr, D. (1974). Individualized curriculim design through computer aided analysis. Presented at a Symposium on Improving the Effectiveness of Business Education through Innovative Technology. Graduate School of Business University of Texas, Austin.
Chi, M.T., & Klahr, D. (1975). Span and rate of apprehension in children and adults. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 19(3), 434-439.
Klahr, D. (1976). Designing a learner: Some questions. In D. Klahr (Ed.), Cognition and instruction . Hillsdale , NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Klahr, D. (1976). The social psychologist as troll. In J.S. Carroll & J.W. Payne (Eds.), Cognition and social behavior . Hillsdale , NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Klahr, D. (1978). Goal formation, planning, and learning by pre-school problem solvers, or: `My socks are in the dryer'. In R.S. Siegler (Ed.), Children's thinking: What develops? (pp. 181-212). Hillsdale , NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Klahr, D., & Siegler, R.S. (1978). The representation of children's knowledge. In H. W. Reese & L.P. Lipsitt (Eds.), Advances in child development, Vol. 12 . New York: Academic Press
Klahr, D., & Robinson, M. (1981). Formal assessment of problem solving and planning processes in preschool children. Cognitive Psychology, 13, 113-148.
Klahr, D. (1982). Non-monotone assessment of monotone development: An information processing analysis. In S. Strauss & R. Stavy (Eds.), U-shaped behavioral growth . New York : Academic Press.
Klahr, D., Chase, W. C., & Lovelace, E. (1983). Structure and process in alphabetic retrieval. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 9(3) , 462-477.
Klahr, D. (1984). Transition processes in quantitative development. In R. Sternberg (Ed.), Mechanisms of Cognitive Development . San Francisco : W. H. Freeman & Co.
Klahr, D. (1984). An embarrassment of number: Comments on the origins of number skills. In C. Sophian (Ed.), Origins of cognitive skills . Hillsdale , NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Carver, S.M. & Klahr, D. (1985).  Developmental progress in the use of weak methods: from hill-climbing to subgoaling. Society for Research in Child Development, Biennial Meeting, Toronto, Canada.
Klahr, D. (1985). Solving problems with ambiguous subgoal ordering: Preschoolers' performance. Child Development, 56 , 940-952.
Klahr, D. (1985). Cognitive Science and Clinical Practice. GPPA Report, 2 , 1-2. Greater Pittsburgh Psychological Association.
Klahr, D. (1985). Insiders, outsiders and efficiency in an NSF Panel. American Psychologist, 40, 148-154.
Carver, S.M., & Klahr, D. (1986). Assessing children's LOGO debugging skills with a formal model. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 2(4), 487-525.
Schrager, J., & Klahr, D. (1986). Instructionless learning about a complex device. International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 25, 153-189.
Klahr, D., Langley , P., & Neches , R. (Eds.). (1987). Production System Models of Learning and Development. Cambridge , MA : MIT Press.
Neches, R., Langley, P., & Klahr, D. (1987).  Learning, Development, and Production Systems. In Klahr, D., Langley , P., & Neches , R. (Eds.), Production System Models of Learning and Development. Cambridge , MA : MIT Press. 1-53
Wallace, J.G., Klahr, D. & Bluff, K. (1987). A self-modifying production system for conservation acquisition. In D. Klahr, P. Langley, & R. Neches (Eds.), Production system models of learning and development. Cambridge , MA : MIT Press.
Klahr, D., & Carver, S.M. (1988). Cognitive objectives in a LOGO debugging curriculum: Instruction, Learning, and Transfer. Cognitive Psychology, 20, 362-404.
Klahr, D., & Dunbar, K. (1988). Dual space search during scientific reasoning. Cognitive Science, 12(1), 1-48
Klahr, D. (1989). Information processing approaches. In R. Vasta (Ed.), Annals of Child Development (pp. 131-185). JAI Press, Inc.
Klahr, D. (1989). A Sears catalog for the developmental psychologist. Review of Bisanz, J., Brainerd, C.J., & Kail, R. [Eds.], 'Formal methods in developmental psychology' New York : Springer-Verlag, 1987. Contemporary Psychology, 34(5), 460-462.
Klahr, D. & Dunbar, K. (1989). Developmental differences in scientific discovery processes. In Klahr, D., & Kotovsky, K. (Eds.), Complex information processing: The impact of Herbert A. Simon. Hillsdale , NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. pp. 109-143.
Klahr, D., & Kotovsky, K. (Eds.). (1989). Complex information processing: The impact of Herbert A. Simon . Hillsdale , NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Klahr, D., Dunbar, K. & Fay, A.L. (1990). Designing good experiments to test `bad' hypotheses. In J. Shrager & P. Langley (Eds.), Computational models of discovery and theory formation . San Mateo , CA : Morgan-Kaufman. pp 355-402.
Okada, T., & Klahr, D. (1991). Searching an Hypothesis When Reasoning About Buoyant Forces: The effect of feedback. Proceedings of the Thirteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society.
Simon, T. J., Newell, A., & Klahr, D. (1991). A computational account of children's learning about number conservation. In D. Fisher & M. Pazzani (Eds.), Concept formation: knowledge and experience in unsupervised learning . San Mateo , CA : Morgan Kauffman. pp. 423-461
Klahr, D. (1992). Information processing approaches to cognitive development. In M. H. Bornstein & M. E. Lamb (Eds.), Developmental Psychology: An Advanced Textbook, 3rd Edition . Hillsdale , N.J. : Erlbaum. pp. 273-335
Schunn, C. D., & Klahr, D. (1992). Complexity management in a discovery task. Proceedings of the Fourteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society.
Ellis, S., Klahr, D., and Siegler R.S. (1993). The effects of feedback and collaboration on changes in children's use of mathematical rules. Presented at the Biennial Meetings of the Society for Research in Child Development.
Klahr, D., Fay, A.L., & Dunbar , K. (1993).  Developmental differences in experimental heuristics. Cognitive Psychology, 25, 111-146
Schunn, C. D. & Klahr, D. (1993).  Self vs. Other-generated hypotheses in scientific discovery. Proceedings of Fifteenth Annual Meetings of Cognitive Science Society
Klahr, D. (1994).  Plausible models of Alphabetic Search: A reply to Scharroo, Leeuwenberg, Stalmeier, & Vos. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition. 20 (1).
Klahr, D. (1994).  Children, adults, and machines as discovery systems Machine Learning , 14, 313-320.
Klahr, D. (1995).  Discovering the Present by Predicting the Future. In M. Haith, B. Pennington, & J. Benson (Eds.) The development of future-oriented processes. Chicago : University of Chicago Press.
Schunn, C. D., & Klahr, D. (1995). A 4-space model of scientific discovery. In Proceedings of the 17th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society.
Simon, T. J.& Klahr, D. (1995).  A computational theory of children's learning about number conservation. In Simon, T.J.; Halford, G.S.; Ed; Developing cognitive competence: New approaches to process modeling . Hillsdale , NJ , England : Erlbaum
Fay, A. & Klahr, D. (1996).  Knowing about guessing and guessing about knowing: Preschoolers' understanding of indeterminacy . Child Development, 67, 689-716.
Klahr, D. (1996).  Scientific Discovery Processes in Children, Adults, and Machines In D. Steier & T. Mitchell, Eds., Mind Matters: Contributions to Cognitive and Computer Science in Honor of Allen Newell Hillsdale , N.J. : Erlbaum.
Penner, D. E., & Klahr, D. (1996). When to trust the data: Further investigations of system error in a scientific reasoning task . Memory & Cognition, 24 (5), 655-668.
Penner, D. E., & Klahr, D. (1996). The interaction of domain-specific knowledge and domain-general discovery stategies: A study with sinking objects. Child development, 67, 2709-2727.
Schunn, C. D., & Klahr, D. (1996). The problem of problem spaces: When and how to go beyond a 2-space model of scientific discovery. In the Proceedings of the 18th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society.
Klahr, D., & MacWhinney, B. (1998).  Information Processing. In D. Kuhn & R. S. Siegler (Eds.), W. Damon (Series Ed.). Handbook of child psychology (5th ed.): Vol. 2: Cognition, perception, and language. New York : Wiley. (631-678)
Chen, Z. & Klahr, D., (1999).  All Other Things being Equal: Children's Acquisition of the Control of Variables Strategy, Child Development , 70 (5), 1098 - 1120.
Klahr, D. (1999).  The Conceptual Habitat: in What Kind of System Can Concepts Develop? In E. K. Scholnick, K. Nelson, S. A. Gelman, & P. H. Miller, (Eds.) Conceptual Development: Piaget's Legacy. Mahwah , NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp. 131 - 161.
Klahr, D. & Simon, H. A. (1999).  Studies of Scientific Discovery: Complementary Approaches and Convergent Findings . Psychological Bulletin, 125 (5), 524-543. 
Haverty, L. A., Koedinger, K. R., Klahr, D. & Alibali, M. W. (2000). Solving Inductive Reasoning Problems in Mathematics: Not-so-Trivial Pursuit, Cognitive Science, Vol.24(2), pp.249-298.
Klahr, D. (2000).  Exploring Science: The Cognition and Development of Discovery Processes . Cambridge , MA :MIT Press  For reviews of this book, click here
Toth, E. E., Klahr, D., & Chen, Z. (2000).  Bridging Research and Practice: a Cognitively-Based Classroom Intervention for Teaching Experimentation Skills to Elementary School Children. Cognition & Instruction, 18(4), 423-459.
Carver, S. M. and Klahr D. (Eds.) (2001) .  Cognition and Instruction: 25 years of progress . Mahwah , NJ : Erlbaum
Klahr, D. & Kotovsky, K. (2001).  A life of the mind: Remembering Herb Simon . APS Observer, 14 (4).
Klahr, D., Chen, Z., and Toth, E. E. (2001). Cognitive development and science education: Ships passing in the night or beacons of mutual illumination? In Carver, S. M. and Klahr D. (Eds.) Cognition and Instruction: 25 years of progress. Mahwah , NJ : Erlbaum

Klahr, D & Simon, H.A. (2001). What Have Psychologists (And Others) Discovered About the Process of Scientific Discovery?
Current Directions in Psychological Science 2001 10: 75

Klahr, D. (2001) Directions to " Eureka!" Science , 292, 2009

Klahr, D. & Chen, Z. (2003).  Overcoming the positive-capture strategy in young children: Learning about indeterminacy. Child Development , 74 (5), 1256-1277.
Masnick, A. M., & Klahr, D. (2003).  Error Matters: An Initial Exploration of Elementary School Children's Understanding of Experimental Error . Journal of Cognition & Development, 4, 67-98.
Triona, L. M. & Klahr, D. (2003).  Point and Click or Grab and Heft: Comparing the influence of physical and virtual instructional materials on elementary school students' ability to design experiments . Cognition & Instruction, 21, 149-173.

Klahr, D (2003). Who’s not a psychologist? Observer Vol.16, No.5 May, 2003

Klahr, D. (2004).  Encounters with the force of Herbert A. Simon. In Augier, M. & March, J. G. (Eds.) Models of a Man: Essays in Memory of Herbert A. Simon . Cambridge , MA : MIT Press.
Klahr, D. (2004).  Commentary: new kids on the connectionist modeling block. Developmental Science, 7(2), 165-166.
Klahr, D. & Nigam, M. (2004).  The equivalence of learning paths in early science instruction: effects of direct instruction and discovery learning. Psychological Science, 15(10).
Klahr, D. (2005).  Early science instruction: Addressing fundamental issues. Psychological Science, 16(11).
Klahr, D. & Li, J. (2005).  Cognitive Research and Elementary Science Instruction: From the laboratory, to the classroom, and back. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 4(2), 217-238.
Triona, L. & Klahr, D. (2005).  A New Framework for Understanding How Young Children Create External Representations for Puzzles and Problems. In E. Teubal, J. Dockrell., & L. Tolchinsky (Eds.), Notational Knowledge: Developmental and Historical Perspectives. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.
Li, J. & Klahr, D. (2006). The Psychology of Scientific Thinking: Implications for Science Teaching and Learning . In J. Rhoton & P. Shane (Eds.) Teaching Science in the 21stCentury. NSTA Press.
Li, J., Klahr, D. & Siler, S. (2006). What Lies Beneath the Science Achievement Gap? The Challenges of Aligning Science Instruction with Standards and Tests. Science Educator, 15, 1-12
Li, J., Klahr, D., & Jabbour, A. (2006). When the rubber meets the road: Putting research-based methods to test in urban classrooms. Proceedings of the seventh international conference of the learning sciences: Making a difference. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Klahr, D. (2007).  Evolution of Scientific Thinking: Comments on Geary's “Educating the Evolved Mind” In Carlson, J. & Levin, J. (Eds.) Psychological Perspectives on Contemporary Educational Issues . Greenwich, CT. Information Age Publishing
Klahr, D., Triona, L. M.,  & Williams, C. (2007).  Hands On What? The Relative Effectiveness of Physical vs. Virtual Materials in an Engineering Design Project by Middle School Children. Journal of Research in Science Teaching , 44, 183-203
Masnick, A. M., Klahr, D., & Morris, B. J. (2007).  Separating signal from noise: Children's understanding of error and variability in experimental outcomes. In, Lovett & Shaw (Eds) Thinking With Data . Mawah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Triona, L. & Klahr, D. (2007).  A New Framework for Understanding How Young Children Create External Representations for Puzzles and Problems. In E. Teubal, J. Dockrell., & L. Tolchinsky (Eds.), Notational Knowledge: Developmental and Historical Perspectives. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers
Triona, L.M., & Klahr, D. (2007).  Hands-On Science: Does it Matter What Students' Hands are on? The Science Education Review, 6(4)
Chen, Z. & Klahr, D., (2008).  Remote Transfer of Scientific Reasoning and Problem-Solving Strategies in Children. In R. V. Kail (Ed.) Advances in Child Development and Behavior, Vol. 36. (pp. 419 – 470) Amsterdam: Elsevier
Klahr, D. & Carver, S. (2008). Scientific Thinking about Scientific Thinking. In Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, Vol. 60, No. 4. (pp 137-151). Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Strand-Cary, M. & Klahr, D. (2008). Developing Elementary Science Skills: Instructional Effectiveness and Path Independence. Cognitive Development, 23, 488–511.
Davenport, J.L., Yaron, D., Klahr, D., &Koedinger, K. (2008). When do diagrams enhance learning? A framework for designing relevant representations. In the proceedings of the 2008 International Convverence of the Learning Sciences.
Klahr, D., Triona, L., Strand-Cary, M., & Siler, S. (2008) .Virtual versus physical materials in early science instruction: Transitioning to an autonomous tutor for experimental design. In J. Zumbach, N. Schwartz T. Seufert and L. Kester (Eds), Beyond knowledge: The legacy of competence meaningful computer-based learning environments (pp.163-172). Springer Science and Business Media.
Klahr, D. (2009) “To every thing there is a season, and a time to every purpose under the heavens”: What about Direct Instruction? In S. Tobias and T. M. Duffy (Eds.) Constructivist Theory Applied to Instruction: Success or Failure? Taylor and Francis.

Newcombe, N.S., Ambady, N., Eccles, J., Gomez, L., Klahr, D.,  Linn, M., Miller, K., & Mix, K. (2009). Psychology’s role in mathematics and science education.  American Psychologist. Vol 64(6), 538-550.

Klahr, D. (2010) Coming Up for Air: But is it Oxygen or Phlogiston? A Response to Taber?s Review of Constructivist Instruction: Success or Failure? Education Review, 13(13).

Siler, S., Klahr, D., Magaro, C., Willows, K. & Mowery, D. Conference Proceeding: Predictors of Transfer of Experimental Design Skills in Elementary and Middle School Children. Intelligent Tutoring Systems, 10th International Conference, ITS 2010, Pittsburgh, PA, USA, June 14-18, 2010, Proceedings, Part II; 01/2010

Siler, S., Mowery, D., Magaro, C., Willows, K. & Klahr, D. Conference Proceeding: Comparison of a Computer-Based to Hands-On Lesson in Experimental Design. Intelligent Tutoring Systems, 10th International Conference, ITS 2010, Pittsburgh, PA, USA, June 14-18, 2010, Proceedings, Part II; 01/2010
Klahr, D. & Chen, Z. (2011) Finding One's Place in Transfer Space. Child Development Perspecives, Vol 5(3) 196-204
Klahr, D., Zimmerman, C. & Jirout, J. (2011). Educational Interventions to Advance Children’s Scientific Thinking. Science, 333(6045): 971-975.
Klahr, D. (2012) Patterns, Rules, & Discoveries in Life and in Science. In Carver, S., & Shrager, J..(Eds.) The Journey From Child to Scientist: Integrating Cognitive Development and the Education Sciences. Washington DC: American Psychological Association
Siler, S, A., Klahr, D., & Price, N. (2012) Investigating the mechanisms of learning from a constrained preparation for future learning activity. Instructional Science, DOI: 10.1007/s11251-012-9224-7
Klahr, D. (2012) Beyond Piaget: a Perspective from Studies of Children’s Problem Solving Abilities. In A. Slater & P. Quinn (Eds.) Refreshing Developmental Psychology: Beyond the Classic Studies. London: Sage Publications
Siler, S. & Klahr, D. (2012) Detecting, Classifying and Remediating Children’s Explicit and Implicit Misconceptions about Experimental Design. In Proctor, R. W., & Capaldi, E. J. (Eds.), Psychology of Science: Implicit and Explicit Processes. New York: Oxford University Press.
Dunbar, K. & Klahr, D. (2012) Scientific thinking and reasoning. In, Keith Holyoak (Ed.) Oxford Handbook of Thinking and Reasoning. Oxford University Press
Jirout, J. & Klahr, D. (2012) Children’s scientific curiosity: In search of an operational definition of an elusive concept. Developmental Review, Volume 32, Issue 2, June 2012, Pages 125-160
Matlen, B, & Klahr, D. (May 2012)Sequential Effects of High and Low Instructional Guidance on Children's Acquisition and Transfer of Experimentation Skills. Instructional Science, DOI 10.1007/s11251-012-9248-z
Klahr, D. (2012) Inquiry Science Rocks: Or Does It? Back Page, APS News. December 2012 (Volume 21, Number 11)
Klahr, D., Matlen, B., & Jirout, J. (2012) Children as Scientific Thinkers. In Feist. G. J. & Gorman, M. E. (Eds.) Handbook of the Psychology of Science. Springer
Siler, S., Klahr, D. & Matlen, B. (2013) Conceptual Change in Experimental Design: From Engineering Goal to Science Goals. In S. Vosniadau (Ed). Handbook of Research on Conceptual Change, 2nd Edition

Klahr, D. (2013) What do we mean? On the importance of not abandoning scientific rigor when talking about science education. PNAS. August 20, 2013 (vol. 110, suppl. 3 | 14075–14080)

Koedinger, K.R., Booth, J.L., & Klahr, D. (2013). Instructional complexity and the science to constrain it. Science, 342, 935-937.
Jodi L. Davenport, Gaea Leinhardt, James Greeno, Kenneth Koedinger, David Klahr, Michael Karabinos, and David J. Yaron (2014) Evidence-Based Approaches to Improving Chemical Equilibrium Instruction. Journal of Chemical Education Article ASAP. Publication Date (Web): September 19, 2014
Deena Skolnick Weisberg, Audrey K. Kittredge, Kathy Hirsh-Pasek, Roberta Michnick Golinkoff, and David Klahr, (2015) Play and the Common Core: Making play work for education. Phi Delta Kappan May 2015 96: 8-13

Siler, S. A. & Klahr, D. (2016). Effects of terminological concreteness on middle-school students' learning of experimental design. Journal of Educational Psychology. 108(4), 547-562.

Weisberg, D.S., Hirsh-Pasek, K., Golinkoff, R.M., Kittredge, A.K., & Klahr, D. (2016). Guided Play: Principles and Practices. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 25(3), 177-182.
Chase, C. & Klahr, D. (2017). Invention Versus Direct Instruction: For Some Content, It’s a Tie, Journal of Science Education and Technology, (), 1-15, DOI 10.1007/s10956-017-9700-6
Amy M. Masnick, David Klahr & Erica R. Knowles (2017) Data-Driven Belief Revision in Children and Adults, Journal of Cognition and Development, 18:1, 87-109, DOI: 10.1080/15248372.2016.1168824
Zimmerman, C. & Klahr, D. (2018) .  Development of scientific thinking. In J. Wixted (Series Ed.), The Stevens' Handbook of Experimental Psychology and Cognitive Neuroscience, S. Ghetti (Ed.), Vol. III. Developmental & Social Psychology.

Klahr, D., Zimmerman, C., & Matlen, B. (2019). Improving Students’ Scientific Thinking. In J. Dunlosky & K. Rawson (Eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of Cognition and Education. Cambridge University Press

Klahr, D. & Siler, S. (2019) Teaching basic experimental design with an intelligent tutor. In Kuhl, P., Lim, S., Guerriero, S. & van Damme, D.  Developing Minds in the Digital Age: Towards a Science of Learning for 21st Century Education, Educational Research and Innovation, OECD Publishing, Paris.

David Klahr (2019) Learning Sciences Research and Pasteur’s Quadrant, Journal of the Learning Sciences, DOI: 10.1080/10508406.2019.1570517

Martella, A. M., Klahr, D., & Li, W. (2020, January 6). The Relative Effectiveness of Different Active Learning Implementations in Teaching Elementary School Students How to Design Simple Experiments. Journal of Educational Psychology. Advance online publication.

Jirout, J. & Klahr, D. (2020) Questions – And Some Answers – About Young Children’s Questions, Journal of Cognition and Development, DOI: 10.1080/15248372.2020.1832492