Carnegie Mellon University

Anger Expression


State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI) – Anger Expression Scale



Copyright Information

Reproduction and administration of this scale requires a use license which is available for purchase from Mind Garden, Inc.

Primary Reference

Spielberger, C. D., et al. (1985). The experience and expression of anger: Construction and validation of an anger expression scale. In M. A. Chesney & R. H. Rosenman (eds.), Anger and Hostility in Cardiovascular and Behavioral Disorders. Cambridge: Hemisphere.

Other References

Johnson, E. H. (1989). The role of the experience and expression of anger and anxiety in elevated blood pressure among black and white adolescents. Journal of the National Medical Association, 81, 573-584.


To assess individual differences in the respective tendencies to express anger openly (Anger-out) and suppress anger or “keep it inside” (Anger-in)


Using a 4-point scale, respondents indicate the frequencies with which they engage in a variety of behaviors when they are “angry or furious”.  Items are not presented within the context of a specific time frame or referent period.


1 = Almost Never, 2 = Sometimes, 3 = Often, 4 = Almost Always

Number of Items

16 (8 Anger-out; 8 Anger-in)


Internal Consistency Reliability in PMBC (n=193)

  • Anger-out: Cronbach's α=0.77
  • Anger-in: Cronbach's α=0.73