Ryff Scales of Psychological Well-Being
PCS2, PCS3, PMBC (Positive Relationships Scale only)
Requests for an electronic version of the Ryff Scales can be sent to Dr. Carol Ryff:
University of Wisconsin–Madison Institute on Aging
2245 Medical Sciences Center
1300 University Avenue
Madison, WI 53706
Ryff, C. D., (1989). Happiness is everything, or is it? Explorations of the meaning of psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 1069-1081.
To assess four constructs comprising overall psychological well-being: self-acceptance, positive relationships with others, environmental mastery, and purpose in life.
Type of Measure
Participants indicate the extent of their agreement or disagreement with self-descriptive statements reflecting the 4 measures of psychological well-being. Response options are presented using a 6-point Likert-type format.
1 = Strongly Disagree, 2 = Moderately Disagree, 3 = Slightly Disagree, 4 = Slightly Agree, 5 = Moderately Agree, 6 = Strongly Agree
Number of Items:
36 (9 items * 4 scales)
9 (Positive Relationships Scale)
- Most people see me as loving and affectionate. (Positive Relationships)
- When I look at the story of my life, I am pleased with how things have turned out. (Self-Acceptance)
- In general, I feel I am in charge of the situation in which I live. (Environmental Mastery)
- I live life one day at a time and don’t really think about the future. (Reversed; Purpose in Life)
Reversed Items: 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 16, 17, 19, 20, 21, 22, 26, 29, 31, 36
- Positive Relationships: Sum Items: 1, 5R, 9R, 13, 17R, 21R, 25, 29R, 33
- Self-Acceptance: Sum Items: 2, 6, 10R, 14, 18, 22R, 26R, 30, 34
- Environmental Mastery: Sum Items: 3, 7R, 11R, 15, 19R, 23, 27, 31R, 35
- Purpose in Life: Sum Items: 4R, 8R, 12R, 16R, 20R, 24, 28, 32, 36R