Carnegie Mellon University

Daily Social Rhythms (PCS3)


Social Rhythm Metric (SRM)

Copyright Information

The original scale in its entirety appears in the primary reference.

Primary Reference

Monk, T., Flaherty, J. F., Frank, E., & Kupfer, D. J. (1994). Social rhythm metric [SRM].  In: J. Fischer & K. Corcoran K (Eds.) Measures for clinical practice: A sourcebook. (2nd ed). 608-61. New York: Free Press.

For data on psychometrics see:

Monk, T. H., Flaherty, J. F., Frank, E., Hoskinson, K., & Kupfer, D. J. (1990). The Social Rhythm Metric: An Instrument to quantify the daily rhythms of life. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 178, 120-126.


To quantify individuals’ characteristic patterns of daily social behavior

Type of Measure



On each evening during the interview period, interviewers asked participants to provide details regarding whether/when and with whom they engaged in 16 specific daily activities.  Participants also were given the opportunity to provide the same information regarding two additional activities that may not have been included among those specified.

  • Went to bed last night
  • Out of bed this morning
  • First contact with another person (face-to-face or by telephone)
  • Have morning beverage
  • Have breakfast
  • Go outside for the first time
  • Begin activities of the day (e.g., housework, volunteer activities, child or family care)
  • Begin paid work
  • Have lunch
  • Have an afternoon snack/drink
  • Take an afternoon nap
  • Have dinner
  • Physical exercise
  • Have an evening snack/drink
  • Watch evening TV news program
  • Optional Activity A (e.g., reading)
  • Optional Activity B
  • Return home for the last time

For each activity, the respondent is asked to provide the time (to the minute) that the activity took place, and whether any of the following persons were involved:

  • Spouse/partner
  • Children
  • Parent(s)
  • Friend(s)
  • Coworker(s)
  • Other relative(s)
  • Other
  • Alone

SRM questionnaire items appear on pages 3 and 4 of the PCS3 evening interview form.

Computed Variables

The following variables are computed for all of the following types of activities:  all activities; activities engaged in alone; activities involving one or more other persons; and activities involving each of the listed relationships (i.e., activities involving spouse/partner; activities involving friends; etc.).

  • Average time each activity was performed, excluding outliers (within 1.5 * SD)
  • Number of activities occurring at least three times per week (“regular activities”)
  • Number of times a performed activity occurs within 45 min of the habitual/average time
  • Number of times that “regular activities” occurred within 45 min of habitual/average time
  • Activity Level Index (ALI): total number of performed activities across each of the 2 weeks comprising the interview period


  • 0 = no events performed at all during week
  • 119 = all 17 events performed every day of the week

SRM score:

  • (# times regular activities occurred within 45 min of habitual/average time) / (total # regular activities)