Carnegie Mellon University

LiMN @ CMU Laboratory

Carnegie Mellon Neuroscience Institute

2022

Liang W, BA Brown, and BG Shinn-Cunningham (2022). “Cat-astrophic effects of sudden interruptions on spatial auditory attention,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, in press.

Noyce A, J Kwasa, and BG Shinn-Cunningham (20222). “Defining attention from an auditory perspective,” WIREs Cognitive Science, in press.

DiNino M, L Holt, and BG Shinn-Cunningham (2022). “Cutting through the noise: Noise-induced cochlear synaptopathy and individual differences in speech understanding among listeners with normal audiograms,” Trends in Hearing 43, 9-22.

Noyce AL, RW Lefco, JA Brissenden, SM Tobyne, BG Shinn-Cunningham, and DC Somers (2022). “Extended frontal networks for visual and auditory working memory,” doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhab249, Cerebral Cortex, 32, 855-869 (bioRxiv doi: 10.1101/2021.04.16.439914).

Ruesch A, JC McKnight, A Fahlman, BG Shinn-Cunningham, and JM Kainerstorfer (2022). “Near-infrared spectroscopy as a tool for marine mammal research and care,” Frontiers in Physiology, 17, doi: 10.3389/fphys.2021.816701.

Viswanathan V, BG Shinn-Cunningham, and MG Heinz (2022). “Speech categorization reveals the role of early-state temporal-coherence processing in auditory scene analysis,” Journal of Neuroscience, doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1610-21.2021,  (bioRxiv doi: 10.1101/2021.09.06.459159).

2021

Fahlman A, JC McKnight, JM Kainerstorfer, BG Shinn-Cunningham, and A Ruesch (2021). “Using medical technology to fight species extinctions,” in “Physiology and climate change: Showcasing the work of physiologists across the world in a global effort to understand and find solutions for the effects of climate change,” Physiological Society, 12-14.

Viswanathan V, BG Shinn-Cunningham, and MG Heinz (2021). “Temporal fine structure influences voicing confusions for consonant identification in multi-talker babble,” of the Acoustical Society of America, 150, 2664-2676, doi: 10.1121/10.0006527 (bioRxiv doi: 10.1101/2021.05.11.443678).

Fleming JT, RK Maddox, and BG Shinn-Cunningham (2021). “Spatial alignment between faces and voices improves selective attention to audio-visual speech,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 150, 3085-3100, doi: 10.1121/10.0006415 (bioRxiv doi: 10.1101/2021.04.19.440487).

Viswanathan V, HM Bharadwaj, BG Shinn-Cunningham, and MG Heinz (2021). “Modulation masking and fine structure shape neural envelope coding to predict speech intelligibility across diverse listening conditions,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 150, 2230-2244, doi: 10.1121/10/0006385, (bioRxiv doi: 10.1101/2021.03.26.437273).

Schalles MD, J Mulsow, D Houser, JJ Finneran, PL Tyack, and B Shinn-Cunningham (2021). “Auditory oddball responses in Tursiops truncatus,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 1, 081202, doi: 10.1121/10.0005991.

Schalles MD, DS Houser, JJ Finneran, PL Tyack, B Shinn-Cunningham, and J Mulsow (2021). “Measuring auditory cortical responses in Tursiops truncatus,” Journal of Comparative Physiology A, doi: 10.1007/s00359-021-01502-5.

Lim SJ, YD Carter, JM Njoroge, BG Shinn-Cunningham, and TK Perrachione (2021). “Talker discontinuity disrupts attention to speech: Evidence from EEG and pupillometry,” Brain and Language, doi: 10.1016/j.bandl.2021.104996 (bioRxiv doi: 10.1101/2021.01.28.428718).

An W, A Pei, AL Noyce, and BG Shinn-Cunningham (2020). “Decoding auditory attention from single-trial EEG for a high-efficiency brain-computer interface,” International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 3456-3459, San Diego, CA, 20-24 July.

An W, BG Shinn-Cunningham, H Gamper, D Emmanouilidou, D Johnston, M Jalobeanu, E Cutrell, A Wilson, KJ Chiang, and I Tashev (2021). “Decoding music attention from ‘EEG headphones:’ A user-friendly auditory brain-computer interface,” IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, Toronto, Canada, 6-11 July.

Ruesch A, JC McKnight, GD Hastie, BG Shinn-Cunningham, and JM Kainerstorfer (2021). “Functional near-infrared spectroscopy in domesticated grey seals,” European Conferences on Biomedical Optics, 20-24 June.

Ruesch A*, JC McKnight*, E Mulder, J Wu, S Balfour, BG Shinn-Cunningham, E Schagatay, and JM Kainerstorfer (2021). “Application of near-infrared spectroscopy in human elite freedivers while deepdiving on a single breath hold,” European Conferences on Biomedical Optics, 20-24 June. (*equal contributions)

An WW, A Pei, AL Noyce, and BG Shinn-Cunningham (2021). “Decoding auditory attention from EEG using a convolutional neural network,” IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Conference, 31 October-4 November.

Bharadwaj H and BG Shinn-Cunningham (2021). “What’s been hidden in hidden hearing loss,” Neuron, doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2021.02.025.

Mathias SR, L Varghese, C Micheyl, and BG Shinn-Cunningham (2021). “Gradual decay and sudden death of short-term memory for pitch,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 149, 259-284, doi: 10.1121/10.0002992.

Bulger E, BG Shinn-Cunningham, and AL Noyce (2020). “Distractor probabilities modulate flanker task performance,” Attention, Perception, and Psychophysics, doi: 10.3758/s13414-020-02151-7

Vlahou E, K Ueno, BG Shinn-Cunningham, and N Kopco (2021). “Calibration of consonant perception to room reverberation,” JJournal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 64, 2956-2976.

2020

Schwartz S, L Wang, BG Shinn-Cunningham, and H Tager-Flusberg (2020). “Atypical perception of sounds in minimally and low-verbal children and adolescents with autism as revealed by behavioral and neural measures,” Autism Research, Autism Research, doi: 10.1002/aur.2363.

Reed RK, B Toth, M Chait, I Winkler, and B Shinn-Cunningham (2020). “Spatial cues can support auditory figure-ground separation,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 147, 6. doi: 10.1121/10.0001387.

Fleming J, A Noyce, and BG Shinn-Cunningham (2020). “Audio-visual alignment improves integration in the presence of a competing audio-visual stimulus,” Neuropsychologia, in press, doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2020.107530.

Lu H, AH Mehta, HM Bharadwaj, BG Shinn-Cunningham, and AJ Oxenham (2020). “Comment on ‘Rapid acquisition of auditory subcortical steady state responses using multichannel recordings,’” Clinical Neurophysiology, doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2020.05.108.

Schwartz S, L Wang, BG Shinn-Cunningham, and H Tager-Flusberg (2020). “Neural evidence for speech processing deficits during a cocktail party scenario in minimally and low-verbal adolescents with autism,” Autism Research, doi: 10.1002/aur.2356.

Bonacci L and BG Shinn-Cunningham (2020). "Non-spatial features reduce the reliance on sustained spatial auditory attention,” Ear and Hearing, in press, doi: 10.1097/AUD.0000000000000879 (bioRxiv 682088, doi: 10.1101/682088). 

Griffiths TD, K Alter, B Shinn-Cunningham (2020). "Speech Biomechanics: Shaping new sounds," eLife, 9, doi: 10.7554/eLife.55749. 

Shinn-Cunningham B (2019). “Brain mechanisms of auditory scene analysis,” in The Cognitive Neurosciences VI, Gazzaniga, Mangun, and Poeppel (eds.), MIT Press, 159-166.

Bonacci L, J Kwasa, A Noyce, and BG Shinn-Cunningham (2020). “Effects of visual scene complexity on neural signatures of spatial attention," Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 14, doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2020.00091.

Mathias SR, L Varghese, C Micheyl, and BG Shinn-Cunningham (2020). “On the utility of perceptual anchors during pure-tone frequency discrimination,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 147, 371-380, doi: 10.1121/10.0000584.

Wang L, V Best, and BG Shinn-Cunningham (2020). “Benefits of beamforming with local spatial-cue preservation for speech localization and segregation,” Trends in Hearing, 24, doi: 10.1177/2331216519896908.

Calcus A, T Schoof, S Rosen, B Shinn-Cunningham, and P Souza (2020). “Switching streams across ears to evaluate informational masking of speech-on-speech,” Ear and Hearing, 41, 208-216, doi: 10.1097/aud.0000000000000741.

2019

Deng Y, I Choi, R Reinhart, and BG Shinn-Cunningham (2019). “Causal links between parietal alpha activity and spatial auditory attention,” eLife, 8, e51184, doi: 10.7554/eLife.51184 (bioRxiv 775718, doi: 10.1101/775718).

Deng Y, I Choi, and BG Shinn-Cunningham (2019). “Topographic specificity of alpha power during auditory spatial attention,” Neuroimage, 207, 116360, doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2019.116360 (bioRxiv 681361, doi: 10.1101/681361).

Bonacci L, L Dai, and BG Shinn-Cunningham (2019). "Weak neural signatures of spatial selective auditory attention in hearing-impaired listeners,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 146, 2577, doi: 10.1121/1.5129055 (bioRxiv 675595, doi: 10.1101/675595).

Viswanathan V, HM Bharadway, and BG Shinn-Cunningham (2019). “Neural representation of speech during selective attention,” eNeuro, 6, ENEURO.0057-19.2019, doi: 10.1523/ENEURO.0057-19.2019.

Deng Y, I Choi, BG Shinn-Cunningham, and R Baumgartner (2019). "Impoverished auditory cues fail to engage brain networks controlling spatial selective attention," Neuroimage, 202, 116151, doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2019.116151 (bioRxiv 533117, doi: 10.1101/533117).

Kopco, N, I Lin, B Shinn-Cunningham, and J Groh (2019). “Hemisphere-specific properties of the ventriloquism aftereffect,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America (bioRxiv 564682, doi: 10.1101/564682).

Lim S-J, BG Shinn-Cunningham, TK Perrachione (2019). “Effects of talker continuity and speech rate on auditory working memory,” Attention, Perception, and Psychophysics, 81, 1167-1177, doi: 10.3758/s13414-019-01684-w.

Wang L, H Bharadwaj, and BG Shinn-Cunningham (2019). “Assessing cochlear-place specific temporal coding using multi-band complex tones to measure envelope-following responses,” Neuroscience, 407, 67-74, doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2019.02.003.

Bharadwaj H, AR Mai, JM Simpson, I Choi, MG Heinz, and BG Shinn-Cunningham (2019), “Non-invasive assays of cochlear synaptopathy—Candidates and considerations,” Neuroscience, 407, 53-66, doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2019.02.031.

Encina-Llamas G, JM Harte, T Dau, B Shinn-Cunningham, and B Epp (2019). “Investigating the effect of synaptopathy on envelope following responses using a model of the auditory nerve,” Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology, doi: 10.1007/s10162-019-00721-7.

2018

Mehraei G, BG Shinn-Cunningham, and T Dau (2018). “Influence of talker discontinuity on cortical dynamics of auditory attention,” Neuroimage, 179, 548-556.

Best V, J Swaminathan, N Kopčo, E Roverud, and B Shinn-Cunningham (2018). “A ‘buildup’ of speech intelligibility in listeners with normal hearing and hearing loss,” Trends in Hearing, 22, doi: 10.1177/2331216518807519.

Shinn-Cunningham BG (2018). “How poor spatial hearing impedes communication,” The Hearing Journal, 71, 18-19.

Dai L, V Best, and BG Shinn-Cunningham (2018). “Sensorineural hearing loss degrades behavioral and physiological measures of human spatial selective auditory attention,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 115, E3286-E3295, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1721226115. 

Abur D, AA Lupiani, AE Hickox, BG Shinn-Cunningham, and CE Stepp (2018). “Loudness perception of pure tones in Parkinson’s disease,” Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 1-10.

Schwartz S, BG Shinn-Cunningham, and H Tager-Flusberg (2018). “Meta-analysis and systematic review of the literature characterizing auditory mismatch negativity in individuals with autism,” Neuroscience and Biohehavioral Reviews 87, 106-117.

2017


Baumgartner R, DK Reed, B Toth, V Best, P Majdak, HS Colburn, BG Shinn-Cunningham (2017). “Asymmetries in behavioral and neural responses to spectral cues demonstrate the generality of looming bias,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 114, 9743-9748, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1703247114.

Noyce AL, N Cestero, SW Michalka, BG Shinn-Cunningham, DC Somers (in press). “Sensory-biased and multiple-demand processing in human lateral frontal cortex,” Journal of Neuroscience, doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0660-17.2017.

Shinn-Cunningham BG (2017). “Cortical and sensory causes of individual differences in selective attention ability among listeners with normal hearing thresholds,” Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 60, 2976-2988.

Haghighi M, M Moghadamfalahi, M Akcakaya, B Shinn-Cunningham, and D Erdogmus. (2017). “A graphical model for online auditory scene modulation using EEG evidence for attention,” IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems & Rehabilitation Engineering, doi: 10.1109/TNSRE.2017.2712419.

Varghese L, SR Mathias, S Bensussen, K Chou, HR Goldberg, Y Sun, R Sekuler; BG Shinn-Cunningham (in press). “Bi-directional audiovisual influences on temporal modulation discrimination,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 141, 2474-2488, doi: 10.1121/1.4979470.

Mehraei G, AP Gallardo, BG Shinn-Cunningham, and T Dau. (2017) “Auditory brainstem response latency in forward masking: A marker of sensory deficits in listeners with normal hearing thresholds,” Hearing Research, 346, 34-44, doi: 10.1016/j.heares.2017.01.016.

Kopco N, G Andrejkova, V Best, B Shinn-Cunningham (2017). “Streaming and sound localization with a preceding distractor,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 141, EL331-EL336, doi: 10.1121/1.4979167.

Shinn-Cunningham BG, V Best, and AKC Lee (2017). “Auditory object formation and selection,” in The Auditory System at the Cocktail Party, JC Middlebrooks and JZ Simon (eds.), Springer Verlag, 7-40.

Shinn-Cunningham BG, L Varghese, L Wang, and H Bharadwaj (2017). “Individual differences in temporal perception, and their implications for everyday listening,” in FFR: A Window into Human Communication, N Kraus, S Anderson, T White-Schwoch, RR Fay, and AN Popper (eds.), Springer Verlag, 159-192.

2016

Lim Y, R Lagoy, B Shinn-Cunningham, TJ Gardner (2016). “Transformation of temporal sequences in zebra finch auditory cortex,” eLife, doi: 10.7554/eLife.18205

Sun Y, BG Shinn-Cunningham, TJ Hickey, and R Sekuler. (2016). “Catching audiovisual interactions with a first-person fisherman video game,” Perception.

Bressler S, H Goldberg, and BG Shinn-Cunningham (2016). “Sensory coding and cognitive processing of sound in Veterans with blast exposure,” Hearing Research.

Dai L and BG Shinn-Cunningham (2016). “Contributions of sensory coding and attentional control to individual differences in performance in spatial auditory selective attention tasks,” Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 10, 530-548, doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2016.00530.

Toth B, Z Kocsis, GP Haden, A Szerafin, B Shinn-Cunningham, and I Winkler (2016). “EEG signatures accompanying auditory figure-ground segregation,” Neuroimage, 141, 108-119, doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2016.07.028.

Mehraei G, AE Hickox, H Bharadwaj, H Goldberg, S Verhulst, MC Liberman, B Shinn-Cunningham (2016). “Auditory brainstem response latency in noise as a marker of cochlear synaptopathy,” Journal of Neuroscience, 36, 3755-3764.

Noyce AL, N Cestero, BG Shinn-Cunningham, DC Somers (2016). “Short-term memory stores are organized by information domain,” Attention, Perception, and Psychophysics, 76, 960-970.

Shinn-Cunningham BG (2016). “How the brain makes sense of complex auditory scenes," International Congress of Acoustics, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 5-9 September.

Shinn-Cunningham BG (2016). “Hearing research relevant to communication acoustics," International Congress of Acoustics, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 5-9 September.

Shinn-Cunningham BG (2016). “Contributions of binaural processing to segregating and selecting speech in a complex sound mixture," International Congress of Acoustics, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 5-9 September.

2015

Shinn-Cunningham BG (2015). "Q & A: Barbara Shinn-Cunningham," Current Biology, 25, R442–R444.

Shinn-Cunningham BG and V Best (2015). “Auditory selective attention,” in The Handbook of Attention, J Fawcett, EF Risko, and A Kingstone (eds.), Cambridge: MIT Press, 99-118.

Michalka SW, ML Rosen, L Kong, BG Shinn-Cunningham, and DC Somers. (2015) “Auditory short-term memory for space, but not timing, flexibly recruits anterior visuotopic parietal cortex,” Cerebral Cortex, doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhv303.

Verhulst S, H Bharadwaj, G Mehraei, C Shera, and BG Shinn-Cunningham (2015). “Functional modeling of the human auditory brainstem response to broadband stimulation,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 138, 1637-1659, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4928305. 

Michalka SW, L Kong, ML Rosen, BG Shinn-Cunningham, and DC Somers (2015). “Short-term memory for space and time flexibly recruit complementary sensory-biased frontal lobe attention networks,” Neuron, 87, 882-892, doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2015.07.028.

Varghese LA, HM Bharadwaj, and BG Shinn-Cunningham. (2015). “Evidence against attentional state modulating scalp-recorded auditory brainstem steady-state responses,” Brain Research, doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2015.06.038.

Goldberg H, Y Sun, TJ Hickey, R Sekuler, and BG Shinn-Cunningham (2015). “Policing fish at Boston’s Museum of Science: Studying audiovisual interaction in the wild,” iPerception, 6, 1-11, dii: 10.1177/2041669515599332.

Williamson RS, KE Hancock, BG Shinn-Cunningham, DB Polley (2015). “Locomotion and task demands differentially modulate thalamic audiovisual processing during active search,” Current Biology, dpi:10.1016/j.cub.2015.05.045.

Guo W, AE Hight, JX Chen, NC Klapoetke, KE Hancock, BG Shinn-Cunningham, ES Boyden, DJ Lee, and DB Polley (i2015). “Hearing the light: neural and perceptual encoding of optogenetic stimulation in the central auditory pathways,” Nature: Scientific Reports, 5, doi:10.1038/srep10319.

Koelwijn T, H de Kluiver, BG Shinn-Cunningham, AA Zevkeld, and SE Kramer. (2015). “The pupil response reveals increased listening effort when it is difficult to focus attention,” Hearing Research, 323, May 2015, Pages 81–90. doi:10.1016/j.heares.2015.02.004.

Bharadwaj H, S Masud, G Mehraei, S Verhulst, and BG Shinn-Cunningham (2015). “Individual differences reveal correlates of hidden hearing deficits,” Journal of Neuroscience, 35, 2161-2172.

O’Sullivan JA, AJ Power, N Mesgarani, S Rajaram, BG Shinn-Cunningham, M Slaney, SA Shamma, and EC Lalor (2015). “Attentional selection in a cocktail party environment can be decoded from single-trial EEG,” Cerebral Cortex, doi: 10.1093/cercor/bht355.

2014   

Choi I, L Wang, H Bharadwaj, and BG Shinn-Cunningham (2014). “Individual differences in attentional modulation of cortical responses correlate with selective attention performance,” Hearing Research, 314, 10-19.

Koelwijn T, BG Shinn-Cunningham, AA Zevkeld, SE Kramer. (2014). “The pupil response is sensitive to attentional load during speech processing,” Hearing Research, 312, 114-120.

Bressler, S Massud, H Bharadwaj, and BG Shinn-Cunningham (2014). “Bottom-up influences of voice continuity in focusing selective auditory attention,” Psychological Research, 78, 349-360, dpi: 10.1007/s00426-014-0555-7.

Bharadwaj HM, S Verhulst, L Shaheen, MC Liberman, and BG Shinn-Cunningham (2014). “Cochlear neuropathy and the coding of supra-threshold sound,” Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience, doi: 10.3389/fnsys.2014.00026.

Kong L, S Michalka, ML Rosen, S Sheremata, JD Swisher, BG Shinn-Cunningham, DC Somers (2012). “Auditory spatial attention representations in the human cerebral cortex,” Cerebral Cortex, doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhs359.

Bharadwaj HM and BG Shinn-Cunningham (2014). “Rapid acquisition of auditory brainstem steady state responses using multichannel recordings,” Clinical Neurophysiology, doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2014.01.011.

Bharadwaj HM, S Rajaram, AKC Lee and BG Shinn-Cunningham. (2014). “Measuring auditory selective attention using frequency tagging,” Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience, 8, DOI=10.3389/fnint.2014.00006.

Lee AKC, E Larson, RK Maddox, and BG Shinn-Cunningham (2014). “Using neuroimaging to understand the cortical mechanisms of auditory selective attention,” Hearing Research, 307, 111-120.

Vorlander M and BG Shinn-Cunningham (2012). “Virtual auditory displays,” in Handbook of Virtual Environments, 2nd edition: Design, Implementation, and Applications, K Hale and K Stanney (eds.), NJ: Erlbaum, 87-114.

2013  

Zhu L, H Bharadwaj, J X, and BG Shinn-Cunningham (2013). “A comparison of spectral magnitude and phase-locking value analyses of the frequency following-response to complex tones,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 134, 384-395.

Schwartz A and BG Shinn-Cunningham (2013). "Dynamic range compression effects spatial selection of speech sounds in normal-hearing listeners," Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 133, 2329-2339.

Choi I, S Rajaram, L Varghese, and BG Shinn-Cunningham (2013). “Quantifying attentional modulation of auditory-evoked cortical responses from single-trial electroencephalography,” Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7, DOI=10.3389/fnhum.2013.00115.

Schwartz A and BG Shinn-Cunningham (2013). “Effects of hearing aid compression on selective auditory attention,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 133, 2329-2339.

Lee AKC, S Rajaram, J Xia, H Bharadwaj, E Larson, MS Hämäläinen, and BG Shinn-Cunningham (2013). “Auditory selective attention reveals preparatory activity in different cortical regions for selection based on source location and source pitch,” Frontiers in Auditory Cognitive Neuroscience, 6, DOI=10.3389/fnins.2012.00190.

Shinn-Cunningham BG, D Ruggles, and H Bharadwaj (2013). “How early aging and environment interact in everyday listening: From brainstem to behavior through modeling,” in Basic Aspects of Hearing: Physiology and Perception, BCJ Moore, RD Patterson, I Winter, RP Carlyon, and HE Gockel (ed), Springer, 501-510.

Shinn-Cunningham B (2012) “Auditory precedence effect,” in Encyclopedia of Computational Neuroscience, D Jaeger and R Jung (eds.), Springer Reference (www.springerreference.com). Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 0. DOI: 10.1007/SpringerReference_348166 2012-10-24 09:20:09 UTC.

2012


Bizley JK, BG Shinn-Cunningham, and AKC Lee (2012). “Nothing is irrelevant in a noisy world: Sensory illusions reveal obligatory within-and across-modality integration,” Journal of Neuroscience, 32, 13402-13410.

Lim Y, BG Shinn-Cunningham, and TJ Gardner (2012). “Sparse contour representation of sound,” IEEE Signal Processing Letters, 19, 684-687.

Ruggles D, H Bharadwaj, and BG Shinn-Cunningham (2012). “Why middle-aged listeners have trouble hearing in everyday settings,” Current Biology, 22, 1417-1422. 

Maddox R, B Perrone, C Billimoria, BG Shinn-Cunningham, and K Sen (2012). “Competing sources reveal spatial effects in cortical processing,” PLoS Biology, 10, e1001319. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001319.

Guo W, AR Chambers, KN Darrow, KE Hancock, BG Shinn-Cunningham, DB Polley (2012). ”Robustness of cortical topography across subdivisions, laminae, anesthetic states, and neurophysiological signal types,” Journal of Neuroscience, 32, 9159-9172.

Schwartz A, J McDermott, and BG Shinn-Cunningham (2012). “Influences of ITD on segregating ambiguous sound mixtures,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 132, 357-368.

Ihlefeld A, BG Shinn-Cunningham and RJ Carlyon (2012). “Comodulation masking release in speech identification with real and simulated cochlear-implant hearing,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 131, 1315-1324.

Varghese L, E Ozmeral, V Best, and BG Shinn-Cunningham (2012). “How visual cues for when to listen aid selective auditory attention,” Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology, 13, 359-368.

Shinn-Cunningham BG (2012). “Conversing at a cocktail party: Linking individual abilities to neural coding,” Echoes, 22, 7-8.

2011

Maddox R and BG Shinn-Cunningham (2011). “Influence of task-relevant and task-irrelevant feature continuity on selective auditory attention,” Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology, 13, 119-129.

Ruggles D, H Bharadwaj, and BG Shinn-Cunningham (2011). "Normal hearing is not enough to guarantee robust encoding of suprathreshold features important in everyday communication", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108, 15516-15521 (see commentary by Shihab Shamma).

Allen K, D Alais, BG Shinn-Cunningham, and S Carlile (2011). “Masker location uncertainty reveals evidence for suppression of maskers in two-talker contexts,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 130, 2043-2053.

Kopco N and BG Shinn-Cunningham (2011). “Effects of stimulus spectrum on distance perception,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 130, 1530-1541.

Xia J and BG Shinn-Cunningham. (2011). “Isolating mechanisms that influence measures of the precedence effect: Theoretical predictions and behavioral tests,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 130, 866-882.

Ihlefeld A and BG Shinn-Cunningham (2011). “Effects of source spectrum on sound localization in an everyday reverberant room,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 130, 324-333.

Ruggles, D and BG Shinn-Cunningham (2011). “Spatial selective auditory attention in the presence of reverberant energy: Individual differences in normal-hearing listeners,” Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology, 12, 395-405.

Lim Y, BG Shinn-Cunningham, and T Gardner (2011). “Contour representations of sound,” Proceedings of the 2001 IEEE Workshop on Applications of Signal Processing to Audio and Acoustics, New Pfaltz, NY, 16-19 October.

2010

Schwartz, E and BG Shinn-Cunningham (2010). “Dissociation of perception judgments of 'what' and 'where' in ambiguous auditory scenes,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 128, 3041-3051.

Mandel, M, S Bressler, BG Shinn-Cunningham, and D Ellis (2010). “Evaluating source separation algorithms in reverberant speech,” IEEE Transactions in Speech and Language Processing, 18, 1872-1883.

Best, V, E Ozmeral, and BG Shinn-Cunningham (2010). “Exploring the benefit of auditory spatial continuity,”Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 127. 258-264.

Xia, J, A Brughera, HS Colburn, and BG Shinn-Cunningham (2010). “Physiological and psychophysical modeling of the precedence effect,” Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology, 11, 495-513.

Best, V, FJ Gallun, CR Masson, G Kidd, and BG Shinn-Cunningham (2010) “The impact of noise and hearing loss on the processing of simultaneous sentences,” Ear and Hearing, 31, 213-220.

2009  

Lee, AKC, A Deane-Pratt, and BG Shinn-Cunningham (2009). “Localization interference between components in an auditory scene,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 126. 2543-2555.

Kopco, N, I-F Lin, BG Shinn-Cunningham, and J Groh (2009) “Reference frame of the ventriloquism aftereffect,” Journal of Neuroscience, 29, 13809-13814.

Dent, M, E McClaine, V Best, EJ Ozmeral, R Narayan, K Sen, and BG Shinn-Cunningham (2009). “Spatial unmasking of birdsong in Zebra Finches (Taeniopygiz guttata) and Budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus),” Journal of Comparative Psychology, 4, 357-367.

Devore, S, A Ihlefeld, BG Shinn-Cunningham, and B Delgutte (2009). “Accurate sound localization in reverberant environments is mediated by robust spatial encoding in the auditory midbrain,” Neuron, 62, 123-134 (see Preview by T. Takahashi).

Best, V, NL Marrone, CR Mason, G Kidd, Jr. and BG Shinn-Cunningham (2009). “Effects of sensorineural hearing loss on visually guided attention in a multi-talker environment,” Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology, 10, 142-149.

Shinn-Cunningham, BG (2009). “I want to party, but my hearing aids won't let me!” The Hearing Journal, 62, 10-13.

Xia, J, HS Colburn, A Brughera, and BG Shinn-Cunningham (2009). "Modeling physiological and psychophysical responses to precedence effect stimuli," Proceedings of the International Symposium on Hearing, Salamanca, Spain, 1-5 June.

2008

Best, V, E Ozmeral, N Kopco, and BG Shinn-Cunningham (2008). “Object continuity enhances selective auditory attention,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105, 13174-13178.

Shinn-Cunningham, B and V Best (2008). “Selective attention in normal and impaired hearing,” Trends in Amplification [invited submission for special issue on Auditory Scene Analysis], 12, 283-299.

Ihlefeld, A and BG Shinn-Cunningham (2008). “Disentangling the effects of spatial cues on selection and formation of auditory objects,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 124, 2224-2235.

Kopco, N and BG Shinn-Cunningham (2008). “Influences of modulation and spatial separation on detection of a masked broadband target,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 124, 2236-2250.

Lee, AKC, S Babcock, and BG Shinn-Cunningham (2008). “Measuring the perceived content of auditory objects using a matching paradigm,” Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology, 9, 388-397.

Shinn-Cunningham, BG (2008). "Object-based auditory and visual attention," Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 12, 182-186.

Gallun, FJ, NI Durlach, HS Colburn, BG Shinn-Cunningham, V Best, CR Mason, and G Kidd, Jr. (2008). "The extent to which a position-based explanation accounts for binaural release from informational masking," Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 124, 439-449.

Lee, AKC and BG Shinn-Cunningham (2008). “Effects of frequency disparities on trading of an ambiguous tone between two competing auditory objects,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 123, 4340-4351.

Ihlefeld, A and BG Shinn-Cunningham (2008). “Spatial release from energetic and informational masking in a selective speech identification task,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 123, 4369-4379.

Ihlefeld, A and BG Shinn-Cunningham (2008). “Spatial release from energetic and informational masking in a divided speech identification task,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 123, 4380-4392.

Lee, AKC and BG Shinn-Cunningham (2008). “Effects of reverberant spatial cues on attention-dependent object formation,” Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology, 9, 150-160.

Shinn-Cunningham, BG and D Wang (2008). “Influences of auditory object formation on phonemic restoration,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 121, 295-301.

Dent, ML, TE Welch, EM McClaine, and BG Shinn-Cunningham (2008). “Species differences in the categorization of acoustic stimuli by birds,” Behavioral Processes, 77, 184-190.

Grace, SM, E Quaranta, BG Shinn-Cunningham, and HF Voigt (2008). “Simulation of the head-related transfer function for gerbils using a boundary element method,” Acta Acustica United with Acustica, 94, 310-320.

Choi, IY, BG Shinn-Cunningham, SB Chon, and K-M Sung (2008). “Objective measurement of perceived auditory quality in multi-channel audio compression coding systems,” Journal of the Audio Engineering Society, 56, 3-17.

Hu, K, P Divenyi, D Ellis, Z Jin, BG Shinn-Cunningham, and D Wang (2008). “Preliminary intelligibility tests of a monaural speech segregation system,” Proceedings of Workshop on the Statistical and Perceptual Audition, Brisbane, Australia, 21 September.

2007

Narayan, R, V Best, EJ Ozmeral, E McClaine, M Dent, BG Shinn-Cunningham, and K Sen (2007). “Cortical interference effects in the cocktail party problem,” Nature Neuroscience, 10(12), 1601-1607 (with supplementary material).

Shinn-Cunningham, BG, AKC Lee, and AJ Oxenham (2007). “Auditory non-allocation of a sound element lost in perceptual competition,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 104, 12223-12227. (supplement)

Best, V, EJ Ozmeral, and BG Shinn-Cunningham (2007). “Visually guided attention enhances target identification in a complex auditory scene,” Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology, 8(2), 294-304.

Best, V, F Gallun, S Carlile, and BG Shinn-Cunningham (2007). “Binaural interference and auditory grouping,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America.Best, 121, 1070-1076.

Kopco, N, V Best, and BG Shinn-Cunningham (2007). “Sound localization with a preceding distractor,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 121, 420-432.

Shinn-Cunningham, BG (2007). “Why hearing impairment may degrade selective attention,” Proceedings of the International Symposium on Auditory and Audiological Research, Helsingør, Denmark, 29-31 August 2007.

Best, V, N Marrone, CR Mason, G Kidd, Jr., and BG Shinn-Cunningham (2007). “Do hearing-impaired listeners benefit from spatial and temporal cues in a complex auditory scene?,” Proceedings of the International Symposium on Auditory and Audiological Research, Helsingør, Denmark, 29-31 August 2007.

Best, V, A Ihlefeld, and BG Shinn-Cunningham (2007). “Divided listening in auditory displays,” Proceedings of the International Congress on Acoustics, Madrid, Spain, 2-7 September 2007

Kopco, N, V Best, and BG Shinn-Cunningham (2007). “Simulating distance cues in virtual reverberant environments,” Proceedings of the International Congress on Acoustics, Madrid, Spain, 2-7 September 2007.

Naka, Y, A Oberai and Shinn-Cunningham, BG (2007). “Optimal space-time finite difference schemes for experimental booth design,” Proceedings of the International Congress on Acoustics, Madrid, Spain, 5-7 September 2007.

Ihlefeld, A, S Chu and BG Shinn-Cunningham (2007). “Attending to space or intensity modulates spatial release from informational masking,” Proceedings of the DAGA (German Acoustical Society), Stuttgart, Germany, 19-22 March 2007.

Choi, IY, BG Shinn-Cunningham, SB Chon, and K-M Song (2007). “Prediction of perceived quality in multi-channel audio compression coding systems,” Proceedings of the Audio Engineering Society 30th International Conference, Saariselka, Finland, 15-17 March 2007.

Peres, SC, V Best, D Brock, C Frauenberger, T Hermann, JG Neuhof, L Valgerdaeur, BG Shinn-Cunningham, and T Stockman (2008). “Auditory interfaces,” In HCI Beyond the GUI, P Kortum (ed), 147-196.

2006

V Best, FJ Gallun, A Ihlefeld, and BG Shinn-Cunningham (2006). "The influence of spatial separation on divided listening," Journal of the Acoustical Society of America," 120, 1506-1516.

Ahveninen, J, IP Jaaskelainen, T Raij, G Bonmassar, S Devore, MHamalainen, S Levanen, FH Lin, M Sams, BG Shinn-Cunningham, T Witzel, JW Belliveau (2006). “Task-modulated 'what' and 'where' pathways in human auditory cortex,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 103, 14608-14613.

Colburn, HS, BG Shinn-Cunningham, G Kidd, and N Durlach (2006). “The perceptual consequences of binaural hearing,” International Journal of Audiology, 45, S34-S44.

Shinn-Cunningham, BG, V Best, ML Dent, FJ Gallun, E McClaine, R Narayan, E Ozmeral, and K Sen (2006). “Behavioral and neural identification of birdsong under several masking conditions,” Proceedings of the International Symposium on Hearing, Cloppenberg, Germany, 164-170.

Devore, S, A Ihlefeld, BG Shinn-Cunningham, and B Delgutte (2006). “Neural and behavioral sensitivies to azimuth degrade with distance in reverberant environments,” Proceedings of the International Symposium on Hearing, Cloppenberg, Germany, 382-388.

2005

Best, V, E Ozmeral, F Gallun, K Sen, and BG Shinn-Cunningham (2005). “Spatial unmasking of birdsong in human listeners: Energetic and informational factors” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 118(6), 3766-3773.

Shinn-Cunningham, BG, A Ihlefeld, Satyavarta, and E Larson (2005). “Bottom-up and top-down influences on spatial unmasking,” Acta Acustica united with Acustica. 91, 967-979.

Naka, Y, A Oberai, and BG Shinn-Cunningham (2005). “Acoustic eigenvalues of rectangular rooms with arbitrary wall impedances using the interval Newton/generalized bisection method,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 118(6), 3662-3671.

Durlach, NI, CR Mason, FJ Gallun, BG Shinn-Cunningham, HS Colburn, and G Kidd, Jr. (2005). “Informational masking for simultaneous nonspeech stimuli: Psychometric functions for fixed and randomly mixed maskers,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 118(4), 2482-2497.

Shinn-Cunningham, BG and T Streeter (2005). “Spatial auditory display: Commentary on Shinn-Cunningham et al., ICAD 2001,” ACM Transactions on Applied Perception, 2(4), 426-429.

Shinn-Cunningham, BG, T Streeter, and J-F Gyss (2005). “Perceptual plasticity in spatial auditory displays,” ACM Transactions of Applied Perception, 2(4), 418-425.

Shinn-Cunningham, BG, N Kopco, and T Martin (2005). "Localizing nearby sound sources in a classroom: Binaural room impulse responses”, J Acoust Soc Am, 117, 3100-3115.

Shinn-Cunningham, BG (2005). “Influences of spatial cues on grouping and understanding sound,” Proceedings of the Forum Acusticum, 29 August - 2 September 2005.

Ueno, K, N Kopco, and BG Shinn-Cunningham (2005). “Calibration of speech perception to room reverberation,” Proceedings of the Forum Acusticum, 29 August - 2 September 2005.

Shinn-Cunningham, BG, Lin, I-F, T Streeter (2005). “Trading directional accuracy for realism,” Proceedings of the Human-Computer Interaction International 2005 / 1st International Conference on Virtual Reality, 22-27 July 2005.

Best, V, A Ihlefeld, and BG Shinn-Cunningham (2005). “The effect of auditory spatial layout in a divided attention task,” Proceedings of the International Conference on Auditory Display, 6-9 July 2005.

2004

Shinn-Cunningham, BG and A Ihlefeld (2004). “Selective and divided attention: Extracting information from simultaneous sound sources,” Proceedings of the International Conference on Auditory Display, 6-9 July 2004.

Lane, CC, N Kopco, B Delgutte, BG Shinn-Cunningham, and HS Colburn (2004). “A cat's cocktail party: Psychophysical, neurophysiological, and computational studies of spatial release from masking,” in Auditory Signal Processing: Physiology, Psychoacoustics, and Models, D Pressnitzer, A de Cheveigne, S McAdams, and L Collet (eds.), Springer Verlag, 405-413.

Shinn-Cunningham, BG (2004). “The perceptual consequences of creating a realistic, reverberant 3-D audio display,” Proceedings of the International Congress on Acoustics, Kyoto, Japan, 4-9 April 2004.

Naka, Y, A Oberai, and BG Shinn-Cunningham (2004). “The finite element method with the Dirichlet-to-Neumann map for sound-hard rectangular rooms,” Proceedings of the International Congress on Acoustics, Kyoto, Japan, 4-9 April 2004.

Kopco, N, M Schoolmaster, and BG Shinn-Cunningham (2004). "Learning to judge distance of nearby sounds in reverberant and anechoic environments," Proceedings of the Joint Congress CFA/DAGA '04, Strasbourg, France, 22-25 March 2004.

2003

Kopco, N and Shinn-Cunningham, BG (2003). "Spatial unmasking of nearby pure-tone targets in a simulated anechoic environment," Journal of the Acoustical Society Am, 114, 2856-2870.

Shinn-Cunningham, BG and K Kawakyu (2003). “Neural representation of source direction in reverberant space," Proceedings of the 2003 IEEE Workshop on Applications of Signal Processing to Audio and Acoustics, New Pfaltz, NY, October 2003, 79-82.

Durlach, NI, CR Mason, BG Shinn-Cunningham, TL Arbogast, HS Colburn, and G Kidd, Jr. (2003). "Informational masking: Counteracting the effects of stimulus uncertainty by decreasing target-masker similarity," Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 114, 368-379.

Durlach, NI, CR Mason, G Kidd, Jr., TL Arbogast, HS Colburn, and BG Shinn-Cunningham (2003). "Note on informational masking," Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 113, 2984-2987.

Shinn-Cunningham, BG and S Ram (2003). “Identifying where you are in room: Sensitivity to room acoustics,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Auditory Display, Boston, MA, 6-9 July, 21-24.

Devore, S and BG Shinn-Cunningham (2003). “Perceptual consequences of including reverberation in spatial auditory displays,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Auditory Display, Boston, MA, 6-9 July, 2003, 75-78.

Shinn-Cunningham, BG (2003). “Spatial hearing advantages in everyday environments,” in Proceedings of the ONR workshop on Attention, Perception, and Modeling for Complex Displays, Troy, New York, June 2003.

Shinn-Cunningham, BG (2003). “Acoustics and perception of sound in everyday environments,” in Proceedings of the 3rd International Workshop on Spatial Media, Aizu-Wakamatsu, Japan, March 2003, 31-40.

2002

Kopco, N and BG Shinn-Cunningham (2002). “Auditory localization in rooms: Acoustic analysis and behavior,” in Proceedings of the 32nd International Acoustical Conference - EAA Symposium, Zvolen, Slovakia, 10-12 September 2002, 109-112.

Shinn-Cunningham, BG (2002). “Speech intelligibility, spatial unmasking, and realism in reverberant spatial auditory displays,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Auditory Display, 2-5 July 2002, 183-186.

Kopco, N and B Shinn-Cunningham (2002). "Effects of cuing on perceived location of auditory sources," In: Intelligent Technologies: Theory and Applications (Eds. P Sincak, J Vascak, V Kvasnicka, and J Pospichal (eds), IOS Press, 201-206.

Shilling, RD and BG Shinn-Cunningham (2002). “Spatial auditory displays,” in Handbook of Virtual Environments Technology, K. Stanney (ed.), 65-92.

2001

Shinn-Cunningham, BG (2001). "Models of plasticity in spatial auditory processing," Audiology and Neuro-otology, 6(4), 187-191.

Shinn-Cunningham, BG J Schickler, N Kopco, and RY Litovsky (2001). "Spatial unmasking of nearby speech sources in a simulated anechoic environment,” ournal of the Acoustical Society of America, 110(2), 1118-1129.

DiZio, P, RM Held, JR Lackner, BG Shinn-Cunningham, and NI Durlach (2001). “Gravitoinertial force magnitude and direction influence head-centric auditory localization,” Journal of Neurophysiology, 85, 2455-2460.

Litovsky, RY and BG Shinn-Cunningham (2001). “Investigation of the relationship between three common measures of precedence: Fusion, localization dominance, and discrimination suppression,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 109, 346-358.

Shinn-Cunningham, BG, JG Desloge, and N Kopco (2001). “Empirical and modeled acoustic transfer functions in a simple room: Effects of distance and direction,” in Proceedings of the 2001 IEEE Workshop on Applications of Signal Processing to Audio and Acoustics, New Pfaltz, NY, 19-24 October 2001, 419-423.

Shinn-Cunningham, BG, T Streeter, and J-F Gyss (2001). “Perceptual plasticity in spatial auditory displays,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Auditory Display, Helsinki, Finland, 29 July-1 Aug 2001, 181-184.

Shinn-Cunningham, BG (2001). “Localizing sound in rooms,” in Proceedings of the ACM SIGGRAPH and Eurographics Campfire: Acoustic Rendering for Virtual Environments, Snowbird, Utah, 26-29 May 2001, 17-22.

Shinn-Cunningham, BG (2001). “Creating three dimensions in virtual auditory displays,” in Usability Evaluation and Interface Design: Cognitive Engineering, Intelligent Agents and Virtual Reality, MJ Smith, G Salvendy, D Harris, and RJ Koubek (eds.), New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaurm, 604-608.

2000   

Yuan, H, WL Sachtler, NI Durlach, and BG Shinn-Cunningham (2000). “Effects of time delay on depth perception via head-motion parallax in virtual environment systems,” Presence, 9(6), 638-647.

Shinn-Cunningham, BG, SG Santarelli,, and N Kopco (2000). “Tori of confusion: Binaural cues for sources within reach of a listener,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 107(3), 1627-1636.

Shinn-Cunningham, BG (2000). “Adapting to remapped auditory localization cues: A decision-theory model.” Perception and Psychophysics, 62(1), 33-47.

Shinn-Cunningham, BG (2000). “Distance cues for virtual auditory space,” Proceedings of the IEEE 2000 International Symposium on Multimedia Information Processing, Sydney, Australia, 13-15 December, 2000, 227-230.

Shinn-Cunningham, BG (2000). “Learning reverberation: Considerations for spatial auditory displays,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Auditory Display, Atlanta, GA, 2-5 April 2000, 126-134.

1999   

Koh, G, T von Wiegand, BG Shinn-Cunningham, RL Garnett, and NI Durlach (1999). “Use of virtual environments for acquiring configurational knowledge about specific real-world spaces: I. Preliminary Experiment,” Presence, 8(6), 632-656.

Guenther, FG, F Husain, M Cohen, and BG Shinn-Cunningham (1999). “Effect of categorization and discrimination training on auditory perceptual space,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 106, 2900-2912.

G Kramer, B Walker, T Bonebright, P Cook, J Flowers, N Miner, J Neuhoff, R Bargar, S Barrass, J Berger, G Evreinov, WT Fitch, M Gröhn, S Handel, H Kaper, H Levkowitz, L Suresh BG Shinn-Cunningham, M Simoni, and S Tipei (1999). Sonification Report: Status of the Field and Research Agenda. Palo Alto, CA.

1998

Shinn-Cunningham, BG, NI Durlach, and RM Held (1998). “Adapting to supernormal auditory localization cues I: Bias and resolution,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 103, 3656-3666.

Shinn-Cunningham, BG, NI Durlach, and RM Held (1998). “Adapting to supernormal auditory localization cues II: Constraints on adaptation of mean response,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 103, 3667-3676.

Shinn-Cunningham, BG (1998). “Applications of virtual auditory displays,” 20th Ann Conf IEEE Engineering in Medical Biology Society, Hong Kong, China, 29 October – 1 November, 20, 1105-1108.

1995

Shinn-Cunningham, BG, PM Zurek, NI Durlach, and RK Clifton (1995). “Cross-frequency interactions in the precedence effect ,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 98, 164-171.

1993


Shinn-Cunningham, BG, NI Durlach, and RM Held (1993). “Adjustment and discrimination measures of the precedence effect,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 93, 2923-2932.