July 2, 2020
Dear Members of the CMU Community:
I write to you today with a critically important communication on behalf of the leadership of Carnegie Mellon University. In the weeks since the tragic killing of George Floyd in police custody, hundreds of thousands of people have stood up to protest the racism and systemic injustices against Black Americans that plague our society. The voices raised represent a broad cross-section of our society and they are echoing around the globe. As we witness our nation confronting the legacy of racial injustice, we are committed to ensuring that Carnegie Mellon stands on the right side of history through bold and concrete actions moving forward.
The Carnegie Mellon University community stands unequivocally against racism and the systems that have perpetuated racial injustice. We support those exercising their right to protest for the protection of the historically marginalized and to speak out against senseless brutality at the hands of police. We join them in proclaiming that Black Lives Matter.
The past several weeks, we have heard from faculty, students, staff and alumni through emails, petitions, and conversations. We are grateful for all of your suggestions and have given each one thorough consideration. In particular, I want to acknowledge and thank our Black community members for engaging in an open and constructive dialogue with me, Provost Garrett and other CMU leaders through countless Zoom calls over the past three weeks. I am humbled by the insights gained from listening to these candid and courageous reflections. Too many stories highlighted that the pain associated with systemic racism and structural barriers to access and opportunity in our society has only been heightened by times when CMU has not served its community better, and for that, I am truly sorry. I acknowledge we need to do more and, like so many of you, we seek to respond and hold ourselves accountable to this individual and collective call to action.
During this profound moment of reckoning for our nation and for institutions across our society, we must start by acknowledging that Carnegie Mellon exists within the very system that has failed Black Americans. This is an uncomfortable reality, but if we do not confront it, we will not create true cultural change for CMU or for the communities we serve. It is our responsibility to work together – intentionally and with clarity of purpose – to assure that racism and injustice are not tolerated on our campus and to leverage our position of power and influence in advancing true progress in our society. This is neither a side project nor a temporary distraction. This work is critical to the future of Carnegie Mellon and it demands the sustained commitment of faculty, students and staff across the university. Anything less will simply not be enough.
Commitments and Actions
To make our commitment actionable and accountable, we are putting forth a set of commitments and new initiatives today, which are outlined in more detail below and in a downloadable PDF. I encourage you to read carefully through this material, which also seeks to answer many of the questions we have received from our community in recent weeks. All of these actions are drawn from the input of faculty, students, staff, alumni and partners and have been endorsed by CMU’s leadership team, with the support of the Board of Trustees. These efforts also build on the foundation developed through the CMU Experience and Campus Climate initiatives over the past several years, which have focused on promoting a more enriching, inclusive and equitable community for all Tartans.
We undertake this important work bearing in mind that we are an academic community with the ability to create meaningful forums within which constructive dialogue can and should flourish. We also have the power to apply our research and creativity towards creating actionable solutions to society’s most challenging issues. We further recognize that it is our obligation to use our privilege, our influence, and our resources to extend the fight for racial equity beyond our campus.
Our commitments span three broad areas of impact: (1) Commitments to the CMU Community; (2) Commitments to the Expansion of Knowledge and Expertise at CMU; and (3) Commitments to Engagement and Economic Empowerment for the Broader Community.
- We commit to engage every member of the CMU community in working together to build and sustain an inclusive culture that promotes equity for all and is intolerant of racism, discrimination, and bias.
- We commit to recruit and develop a student body that truly represents the vibrant diversity of our nation and the world, where all Black and marginalized students feel supported throughout their education and experience.
- We commit to recruit, retain and develop Black and underrepresented faculty and staff and to provide all of our employees with an environment that fosters their collective success.
- We commit to build greater trust, understanding and transparency between the CMU community and the CMU Police.
- We commit to grow our leadership in the study of racism and systemic injustice, for the purpose of influencing public policy and developing meaningful interventions.
- We commit to partnering with our community to develop positive social innovations that expand access, opportunity and economic empowerment in the Pittsburgh region and reverse the trends of racial injustice and inequality.
In pursuit of these commitments, we propose 34 concrete actions, with short-, medium- and long-term horizons. These actions are outlined in more detail below and will soon be incorporated into a new, expanded webpage with detailed tracking measures. These steps will also require changes to policies and structures at CMU and we are committed to making this progress.
All of these commitments and related actions will require accountability, leadership, and dedicated resources. As announced previously, as a result of the Campus Climate Initiative, we are launching a search for the new position of Vice Provost for Diversity, Equity and Inclusion to lead a new university-wide office dedicated to DEI. I am pleased to share that this search will be co-chaired by professors Eric Anderson from the College of Fine Arts and Linda Babcock from the Dietrich College. This vice provost will partner with Provost Garrett and me to hold ourselves and the community accountable for the commitments we are outlining today, and any future actions.
We are at a profound inflection point – for our community, for Pittsburgh, and for our global society. I am grateful for the thoughtful input from faculty, students, staff, alumni, trustees and other partners in formulating this road map, which amounts to the boldest and most sweeping plan in our university’s history tto promote a more diverse, inclusive, equitable CMU. I am especially grateful to the leaders of our Black student organizations, as well as the leaders of CMU’s undergraduate and graduate student governments, whose engagement helped shape many of the ideas, and whose partnership we appreciate as we move forward.
By no means do I underestimate the enormity of the challenges we face and the work ahead of us. Especially given the uncertainty caused by the pandemic and the related financial challenges, we will need to engage creatively and collectively on next steps. In the coming weeks, the leadership team will continue to hold conversations with key stakeholder groups, such as Faculty Senate, Staff Council, Student Government, leaders of academic and administrative units, alumni, local partners, and the CMU community members with whom we have been engaging throughout our planning. These conversations will help us fine-tune our strategies and develop the appropriate implementation and assessment plans, with a focus on sharing transparent, measurable progress. We also invite members of our community to send feedback and reflections regarding this work and the university’s commitments.
Inevitably there will be those who think these initial steps go too far, and those who think they do not go far enough. The truth is: these are deeply complex issues and we don’t have all of the answers today. But we know that the only way to find meaningful solutions is to dig into this work together and in a way that is authentic to CMU.
I want to assure you that these will not be the last actions we announce, and that this is the start of a larger, ongoing effort that must involve every single person in this community. The scourge of racism will only be cured when we all step up to do the right thing, and hold ourselves and each other accountable to make meaningful progress.
At CMU, we have always approached major societal challenges with a trademark fearlessness and commitment to impact, and I believe we are equipped with the power to forge a new future. Together, let us embrace this historic opportunity to reshape the arc of justice with passion, conviction, and action.
Henry L. Hillman President’s Chair
We must work intentionally to ensure that every member of the CMU community has a shared understanding of, and commitment to, our institutional values; to promote strong foundational knowledge of societal issues; to create opportunities for further intellectual and personal growth; and to embed accountability measures for individual and collective actions. We will take the following steps to enhance this work:
1. We are charging the academic leadership to develop a modular set of courses in cultural competencies, including topics related to bias, discrimination, anti-racism, anti-sexism and cultural sensitivity. Furthermore, to expose as many students as possible to these topics, we charge the deans of our schools and colleges to work with their respective faculties on integrating these topics into the existing curriculum, with particular attention to degree requirements at all levels. [Medium-Term]
2. Student Affairs is partnering with campus experts to develop brand new orientation sessions addressing civility, bias, inclusion and anti-racism that will be added to both undergraduate and graduate orientation this August. [Short-Term]
3. This fall we will pilot a new “Diversity, Equity and Inclusion for Students” orientation training module with all incoming undergraduate and graduate students. The interactive, online course uses realistic scenarios to teach key concepts such as identity, bias, power, privilege and oppression while also addressing self-care, ally behaviors and inclusive practices. If successful, we plan to add this training as a requirement for all incoming students in the future; similar elements will also be integrated into faculty orientation and staff onboarding. [Short-Term]
4. Meaningful engagement on these issues often occurs through conversations and events outside the classroom. We commit to further diversify the speakers we bring to challenge, engage and educate the campus community on topics related to racism, equity and social justice. Provost Garrett has accepted the charge to incorporate these events into the educational experience so that more students participate in these opportunities. [Medium-Term]
5. We are charging Michael McQuade, vice president for research, to examine the current Responsible Conduct of Research (RCR) curricula to explore ways that it can be expanded to include training on Diversity, Equity and Inclusion (DEI) topics for graduate student researchers and faculty. He will also recommend what expertise can be made available to all members of the research community wishing consultation or support on ethics and DEI issues in their research. [Medium-Term]
6. As part of the Campus Climate Initiative, we are launching professional development for faculty and staff on cultural sensitivity, civil discourse and a broad range of DEI topics. We charge Jeanne VanBriesen, vice provost for faculty, and Michelle Piekutowski, associate vice president for human resources, to expand these efforts to specifically include professional development on prejudice, anti-racism, misinformation and bias. [Medium-Term]
7. The university will also create a Community Fellows program whereby individuals with expertise in anti-racism will spend up to a year in residence at CMU. Their work will include leading public conversations, mentoring CMU students, and participating in small group conversations focused on concrete ways to create a more inclusive environment at CMU and confront racism in our society. We will begin with a pilot in the Dietrich College. [Pilot Launch in Fall 2020]
8. Many of your suggestions emphasized the importance of transparent and sustained communications. Accordingly, this fall we will launch an expanded website dedicated to diversity, equity and inclusion. This site will centralize statements and resources; share progress on our commitments and action steps; include resources on how to report incidents of bias and racism; and publicize relevant organizations and events. [Ongoing]
All of the aspirations detailed in this section – and in future sections – will require accountability, leadership and dedicated resources. As announced previously, as a result of the Campus Climate Initiative, we are launching our search for the new position of Vice Provost for Diversity, Equity and Inclusion to lead a new university-wide office dedicated to DEI. This search will be co-chaired by professors Eric Anderson from the College of Fine Arts and Linda Babcock from the Dietrich College. Central to our objectives for this position is that the vice provost will partner with the president and the provost to hold the community accountable for the commitments outlined in this document, and any future actions.
The vice provost will also partner with the deans and vice presidents on the continuous evaluation and refinement of their DEI plans. Several of those plans, which are being shared locally, are moving into the implementation phase for the next academic year. Finally, in order for the DEI office to effectively fulfill its mission, we recognize that, even during this challenging financial climate, it will need resources and funding commitments. It will also need the mandate to review policies, practices and aspects of campus culture that perpetuate inequity. The president and the provost commit to providing both of these.
For our currently matriculated Black and marginalized students, and for the benefit of our entire community, we will identify and address any policies, practices and aspects of institutional culture that may perpetuate discrimination and inequity. We also commit to work throughout the many pathways of entry to assure greater access to a CMU education, including preparing underserved populations to thrive at CMU and throughout their lives. In support of this, we make the following commitments:
1. We are charging Provost Garrett and Dean of Admission Mike Steidel to undertake a comprehensive examination of our admissions and financial aid policies and practices. The goal of this work is to formulate a set of strategies and actions for recruiting more talented students from underserved communities, with a special focus on students from Pittsburgh area public schools. Part of this assessment must include a determination on the efficacy of standardized tests, taking into account mounting evidence that these testing practices only perpetuate racial bias in admissions across higher education. [Short-Term]
2. We will double the capacity of the Tartan Scholars program for first-year undergraduate students who are academically high-achieving and come from low-income backgrounds. [Short-Term]
3. We will expand fellowship programs that meet the unique needs of underrepresented professional masters and doctoral students, including the PPIA Junior Summer Institute in the Heinz College, the GEM Fellowship programs in the College of Engineering and the School of Computer Science and the CGSM Fellowship program in the Tepper School of Business. [Medium-Term]
4. We commit to expand the Provost Inclusive Teaching Fellows program so that we can continue to advance inclusive teaching practices among our faculty, with a special focus on incorporating more diverse voices in course materials. [Ongoing]
5. In the year ahead, the Center for Student Diversity and Inclusion (the Center) will expand peer education and leadership development opportunities aimed at fostering intergroup dialogue and building student capacity as agents of social change. The Center is also committed to reframing mentorship programs to work in close collaboration with alumni and career and professional development networks. This engagement will help ensure student success and build a more culturally validating campus community. Executive Director M. Shernell Smith and the academic leadership will work together on ways for CMU faculty to engage more meaningfully with the Center. [Medium-Term]
6. The University Education Council is advancing a faculty-initiated proposal for inclusion of a DEI statement in course syllabi, including information on how to report bias, as a visible and pervasive message to all. [Short-Term]
1. We are piloting a “Faculty Opportunity Fund” that will support recruitment, retention and development of outstanding scholars in all fields who will contribute to diversity and equity at CMU and enhance our reputation as a leading university. The success of this program will also depend on supporting and expanding recruitment strategies that have proven successful to date, including the President’s Postdoctoral Fellowship Program (PPFP), among others. [Launch in Fall 2020; Long-Term]
2. We will publish an annual report on the composition of our faculty and staff, and progress in recruiting. We know that concerted efforts to engage in outreach to assure diversity in pools of candidates and to reduce bias can make a difference. For example, since the College of Engineering’s DEI plan went into effect three years ago, the College of Engineering has hired 5 (with an additional outstanding offer to make 6) new Black or African American faculty. [Starting in July 2021]
3. During the next year, we will convene a representative committee of faculty and staff to look at our policies, structures and systemic issues in order to promote greater equity in our recruitment, retention, development and promotion efforts. This work will include a review of staff compensation and benefits to evaluate equity across several dimensions. This committee’s work will build on recent efforts to improve equity such as: [Ongoing]
- New processes for conducting management and senior leadership searches to improve their equity across multiple dimensions;
- New requirements for the awarding of professorships, including transparency from the deans on who was considered, who was selected and why;
- Increases in staff development opportunities, such as CMULead and FocusU;
- Expansion of unconscious bias training for search committees and interview teams, and new tools for recruiting more diverse pools of candidates; and
- Expansion of staff exit interview process to understand why employees leave CMU, including a plan for using the data collected. We are also implementing “stay” interviews for managers to proactively retain talent.
4. A number of our faculty and staff have asked us to support them in developing “social capital” through community connections and networks. We have partnered with Vibrant Pittsburgh to provide resources to our faculty and staff, including empowering employee affinity groups. Furthermore, the university will provide guidance and support for the development of internal affinity groups to serve members of our community. [Short-Term]
5. Moving forward, when entering into new contracts with vendors and contractors, the university will require that they describe their commitments to diversity and equitable and inclusive practices in writing. Furthermore, we are charging Michelle Piekutowski to make select professional development training available to these contractors, especially related to DEI. [Medium-Term]
Our campus community is fortunate to be served and protected by the CMU Police Department. We affirm that our policies conform to “8 Can’t Wait,” a collection of eight police reforms put together by Campaign Zero, a Black Lives Matter-connected group, aimed at reducing police violence through data-driven solutions, including a ban on choke-holds and strangle-holds. In fact, most of these policies have been in place at CMU for several years. However, we acknowledge that we need to do more to build trust and understanding among our community and the police, and the key to that is transparency. We commit to the following actions:
1. We will equip all CMUPD officers with body cameras, at the request of our chief of police, and will develop protocols on their use and policies to ensure their efficacy. [Short-Term]
2. We will make publicly available information on existing departmental policies, such as impartial policing and the use of force, officer training, including training on implicit bias, cultural sensitivity, communication, negotiation and de-escalation, as well as efforts to continually assess, refine and expand these efforts. [Short-Term]
3. We will publish a new annual report on police activities. This report will consolidate much already-collected data, such as the information we are required to disclose by the Clery Act. [Starting July 2021]
4. We will convene a Presidential Review Board to review the CMU Police Department and assess its policies and operations, including how it engages with our community. We convene these review boards periodically to assess the colleges and schools and other administrative units. The review boards include nationally recognized experts, representation from CMU’s Board of Trustees and alumni, and engage members of the community, including students, faculty and staff. [Launch in Fall 2021]
Addressing our Relationship with the Pittsburgh Police Department
We recently received questions about our relationship with the Pittsburgh Bureau of Police (PBP). For the record, CMU does not have a formal relationship with PBP. That said, we rely on their support, for example, when we host major events that require increased police capacity, such as our annual Commencement or high-profile visits like former President Barack Obama’s appearance during the Frontiers Conference in 2016. We also partner with PBP to investigate crimes that fall outside the purview of CMUPD, and to keep our community safe. While we do not plan on changing that dynamic, we are encouraged by Mayor Bill Peduto's recent announcements regarding police reform and CMU leadership will continue to provide advocacy for this important work.
Addressing Metro21 Research
We also want to take this opportunity to address the questions we received about Metro21’s “Pittsburgh Crime Hot Spot Project.” We confirm that this project was completed in December 2019, and the researchers are no longer providing data to the PBP. CMU faculty regularly engage in research that involves local communities, and in the case of this project, it is clear that the project should have more vigorously engaged the community in its early stages.
To ensure transparency and appropriate involvement in future projects that involve local communities, we are charging Vice President for Research Michael McQuade to lead a review of CMU’s processes for community engagement in community-based research. The review will recommend best practices for community engagement during the formulation of such projects and identify any additional training or resources that CMU will make available.
As an academic institution, Carnegie Mellon is equipped with the power to leverage our research and creativity to create knowledge and contribute to greater understanding of critical societal challenges. In doing so, we can find actionable solutions that support progress in our society.
To aid this work, we commit to the following:
1. Building on the unique strengths of CMU, we will be funding cross-college cluster hires to build greater scholarly capacity and expertise in areas such as: Black and African American history and culture, critical race studies and social justice; the political economic underpinnings and psychology of discrimination; inclusive art and design; the intersections of technology, business and policy and their related impacts on ethics, justice, and equity; and more. [Medium- to Long-Term]
2. In addition to increasing the number of faculty who can make relevant curricular contributions to the study of race, we commit to expand our existing resources and to fund the development of new courses and degree programs that will further enhance our academic offerings in Black history, art and culture, and issues related to race and social justice. We are charging academic leadership across campus to work with the faculty experts in these areas to introduce programs and courses that foreground race and anti-racism. Our expanded research and curricula in matters relevant to race and racism will allow and encourage students in different disciplines to dedicate themselves to the sustained study of such topics, or to pursue a dedicated academic major or minor. Several departments across campus are already in conversation about designing joint programs that can offer a complex approach to the study of race and racism. Our initiatives will not be limited to any one college or disciplinary approach. Our goal must not be to create separate silos of knowledge, but to infuse a deep and sustained commitment to learning that will span the entire university. [Medium-Term]
3. We will form a university-wide committee of faculty and other stakeholders to study and recommend the creation of a cross-college research center or institute that is focused on issues germane to racism and social justice. This center will leverage our strengths in interdisciplinary research in order to create knowledge as well as engage the community. It is expected that this institute or center will be led by faculty with expertise in these areas. [Medium-Term]
4. We will fund a new CAUSE (Center for Africanamerican Urban Studies and the Economy) initiative aimed at partnerships with academic units across CMU, especially the deep expertise within the Heinz College. This initiative will create a series of seminars and workshops on critical societal topics, such as racialized policing, mass incarceration and racial disparities within health care. These events aim to bring top scholars and public officials from around the country to engage our campus community in dialogue and to create edited volumes of scholarship and policy interventions related to these topics. [Launch in Fall 2020]
5. Our University Libraries exist to help community members come together to discover and explore works of scholarship and imagination that represent diverse ideas and viewpoints. Our libraries recognize that the archives have not achieved its potential to cultivate a collection that is truly reflective of the diversity of the CMU community. In recognition of this, the libraries commit to reversing this trend with the creation of a fund to support the collection and processing of archives that represent underrepresented groups. Our libraries will also continue to develop collections of scholarly work that will strengthen our community’s exploration of diverse perspectives and study of societal issues, including racism. [Ongoing]
We recognize that we have a significant amount of work to do if we are to engage in sustainable intellectual change that can play a key role in the broader social, cultural and political progress needed. We have a clear commitment for change and the passion and energy of talented faculty, staff and students. As we develop long-term plans that can help us achieve ambitious goals, we welcome ideas from all members of our academic community.
We acknowledge that, even as Pittsburgh experiences an economic renaissance, many of our closest neighbors are not able to reap these benefits. Structural inequity is pervasive in Pittsburgh, with our Black community witnessing inequities in health, wealth, nutrition, pollution, housing and education. Universities have traditionally played a central role in economic advancement through innovation; and yet we live in a time when the prosperity catalyzed by our academic institutions is not shared by all communities, and hence is exacerbating structural barriers to economic opportunity. Our neighbors in underserved communities tell us that, for many, CMU seems inaccessible and out of reach. We can and must upend these trends, and in fact, it is our moral obligation to do so.
We commit to showing moral leadership by interrogating the structures of racism and inequity in Pittsburgh and inventing new programs and policies that promote access, equity and economic empowerment.
Our vision is not only for CMU to be a catalyst for positive change in Pittsburgh, but to create room for a research-to-practice endeavor at CMU that can be then emulated by every university in the U.S. In doing so, we can rebalance the relationship between academic institutions and the communities they serve so that the practice of anti-racism can be both national and hyper-local. This is not short-term work. The cause of equity and justice will require never-ending effort in order to affect lasting change, and we commit to this long-term endeavor.
We know that change begins when our faculty, staff and students align their expertise with the direct experience of their neighbors. There are numerous examples that exemplify what CMU can achieve in our community through collaborative partnerships – including the data-driven interventions of the CREATE Lab to promote equity in housing, education, air quality and more; recent work being done by the School of Computer Science, the Simon Initiative and the Entertainment Technology Center to provide free access to Wi-Fi in high-need areas during the global pandemic; the collaboration of the Block Center for Technology and Society and Mobility21 to address systemic barriers to mobility through enhanced access to ride hailing services for low-income, single mothers in Pittsburgh; the collaboration with local high schools through the annual MLK Writing Awards; and the work of the Frank-Ratchye STUDIO for Creative Inquiry to help annotate and organize the archives of African-American photographer Charles “Teenie” Harris; and the arts and humanities education initiatives of Arts Greenhouse, just to name a few. It is our responsibility to create new resources to support and expand these and other engagements. We commit to further CMU’s role in our community through deeper engagement and economic and cultural empowerment activities, beginning with the following actions:
1. We will launch a seed funding program to support the expansion of community-driven social innovation projects, especially those that are aimed at dismantling structural barriers to opportunity, promoting shared prosperity, and supporting cultural expression by diverse artists. We commit to do this through fundraising, external partnerships, re-prioritizing internal resources, and by enabling students, staff and faculty at CMU to directly engage on these projects as part of their core work. [Launch in Fall 2020]
2. In addition to actions previously outlined regarding admissions, the Office of Admission will also expand its engagement with Pittsburgh area schools and deepen our relationships with their college counselors. We also commit to promote greater access to a CMU education by all Pittsburgh area students in the following ways:
- CMU’s Summer Academy for Math and Science (SAMS) is a nationally recognized program for building a pipeline of talented and diverse students in the STEM fields. SAMS will maintain its signature access and inclusion residential experience in 2021, with new emphasis on reaching students from our local region through intensive summer programming and extended engagement through the academic year. [Summer 2021]
- We will launch a new CMU Humanities and Arts pipeline program, housed in Dietrich College and the College of Fine Arts, that will identify students in Pittsburgh high schools, with an emphasis on underserved communities, who are interested in the Humanities, Arts or Social Sciences; provide year-round programming aimed at preparing these students for college; provide scholarships for those admitted; and provide general support throughout their experience. [Summer 2021]
3. We are charging Angela Blanton, vice president and chief financial officer, to expand our Supplier Diversity Program to include a greater focus on procurement from locally owned businesses. The university will partner with organizations like the African American Chamber of Commerce of Western Pennsylvania and others to review and enhance our programs for giving such businesses easier access to CMU. For example, as the footprint of our campus continues to grow through significant capital project expenditures, we will strive for 15% small business participation in construction, architecture, engineering and related services, with a focus on minority-, women- and veteran-owned businesses. [Ongoing]
4. We are charging the Tepper School of Business with creating new and expanded opportunities for local executive talent development in marginalized regions of our city, building on the success of the Executive Leadership Academy, a collaboration with the Advanced Leadership Initiative. [Ongoing]
5. We commit to bringing our expertise in entrepreneurship to bear in support of innovative local businesses. The Swartz Center for Entrepreneurship will develop educational seminars and networking events to help women- and minority- owned businesses launch and thrive, especially those in underserved communities in the Pittsburgh region. The goal is for the Swartz Center to become a unique convening site, where these local entrepreneurs can access resources and consultation on how best to integrate digital technologies and best practices into their businesses. These opportunities will include engagement with student groups such as the Swartz Entrepreneurial Fellows and Innovation Scholars. [Medium- to Long-Term]
6. We commit to greater transparency in the community-driven education, research and service efforts that are taking place across the institution through the creation of a new Community Engagement website. This site will serve to highlight our community-facing efforts, engage students, staff and faculty interested in participating in this work, and allow members of the Pittsburgh community to locate the right university resources and contacts. [Launch in Fall 2020]