Carnegie Mellon University


A vast range of initiators have been employed for ATRP since the appropriate selection of an initiator is a simple method for intorduction of α-functionality into a linear monofunctional copolymer chain.

Some abbreviations used in the following examples:

BPN: 2-bromopropanitrile

BriB: ethyl 2-bromoisobutyrate

EBrP: ethyl 2-bromopropionate

MBrP: methyl 2-bromopropionate   

1-PEBr: 1-phenyl ethylbromide

TsCl:  tosyl chloride

MANDC:  1-cyano-1-methylethyldiethyldithiocarbamte

EMADC:  2-(N,N-diethyldithiocarbamyl)-isobutyric acid ethyl ester

DMDBHD: dimethyl 2,6-dibromoheptanedioate

Since many initiators are similar to "dormant chain ends" the rate of activation depends on the structure of the initiator. One normally seeks to ensure that the rate of activation from the added initiator is at least as fast as the rate of propagation, if narrow polydispersity and high initiation efficiency is desired.