## Robotics Academy research is in collaboration with Carnegie Mellon University and the University of Pittsburgh’s Learning Research and Development Center.

## Ongoing Studies

1. Building Theory of Badges for Computer Science Education

2. Changing Culture in Robotics Classrooms (CCRC)

3. Teaching Robot Programming Through Simulation

• Robot Virtual Worlds Fall 2012 Study Results

4. Robots in Motion Robot Algebra Project

## Teaching Programming through Robotics

• Witherspoon, E., Higashi, R., Schunn, C., Shoop, R., Baehr, E. (October 2017) Developing Computational Thinking through a Virtual Robotics Programming Curriculum. ACM Transactions on Computing Education, Vol. 18, No. 1, Article 4. [PDF]

• Higashi, R., Schunn, C., Flot, J (May 2017) *Different underlying motivations and abilities predict student versus teacher persistence in an online course.* Education Tech Research Dev DOI 10.1007/s11423-017-9528-z [PDF]

• Flot, J., McKenna, J., Shoop, R. (2016) *Helping Students Build Conceptual Models – the Lost Manual.* Carnegie Mellon Robotics Academy, Pittsburgh, PA. [PDF]

• Flot, J., Higashi, R., McKenna, J., Shoop, R., Witherspoon, E. (July 2016) *Using Model-Eliciting Activities to Engage Students in Computational Thinking Practices* Presented at the High Impact Technology Exchange Conference (2016 HI-TEC), Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. [PDF]

• Flot, J., Friez, T., Schunn, C., Shoop, R., Witherspoon, E. (March 2016) *Can Computational Thinking Practices Be Taught in Robotics Classrooms?* Presented at the International Technology and Engineering Education Conference, National Harbor, Washington DC. [PDF]

• Liu, A., Schunn, C. D., Flot, J., & Shoop, R. (2013) *The role of physicality in rich programming environments.* Computer Science Education, 23(4), 315-331., [PDF]

• Flot, J., Shoop, R (November 2013) *Foregrounding Math, Engineering, and Computer Science using Robotics.* The presentation was given at the Technology Education and Engineering Association of Pennsylvania Annual Conference, Camp Hill Pennsylvania., [PDF copy of PowerPoint]

• Flot, J., Shoop, R (November 2013) *Teaching Programming with Robot Virtual Worlds*. The presentation was given at the Technology Education and Engineering Association of Pennsylvania Annual Conference, Camp Hill Pennsylvania., [PDF copy of PowerPoint]

• Liu, A., Newsom, J., Schunn, C., Shoop, R. *Learn to program in half the time!*. *Robot Magazine, *49-51. [Author Proof (PDF)]

• Soldaat, X., Friez, T., Flot, J. *Pointers and Data Structures in ROBOTC*. *Robot Magazine, *59-61. [Author Proof (PDF)]

• Liu, A., Newsom, J., Schunn, C., Shoop, R. *Students Learn Programming Faster through 7. Robotic Simulation*. *Tech Directions, *16-19. [Author Proof (PDF)]

• Flot, J., Lui, A., Schunn, C., Shoop, R. (November 2012). *Learning How to Program via Robot Simulation*. *Robot Magazine, *68-70. [Author Proof (PDF)]

• Avanzato, R., Choset, H., Friez, T., Shoop, R. Veloso, M. (2011, December). *Programming and Multi-Robot Communications*. *Robot Magazine, *74-77. [Author Proof (PDF)]

• Atwood, T., Shoop, R. *Carnegie Mellon Launches a Mega Million Dollar Robotics Education Initiative*. *Robot Magazine, *70-71. [Author Proof (PDF)]

• Shoop, R. (2011, May). *FIRE Unveils Robot Virtual World Games*. Robot Magazine, 78-81. [Author Proof (PDF)]

• Shoop, R. (2011, January) Computer Science Student Network Project. Presented at the Computing Education for the 21st Century (CE21) meeting, New Orleans [Handout]

• Higashi, R., Shoop, R. (2011, November) *Organizational Expectations* Presented to Propel School System Teachers and Administrators, Robot Algebra Partnership Kickoff [Handout]

## Badges, Motivation, and Assessment

• Abramovich, S., Schunn, C.D., Higashi, R. (2013) *Are Badges Useful in Education?: it depends upon the type of badge and expertise of Learner*. Educational Technology Research & Development, March 2013. DOI: 10.1007/s11423-013-9289-2. [Paper PDF]

• Higashi, R., Abramovich, S., Shoop, R., Schunn, C.D.(2012, June) *The Roles of Badges in the Computer Science Student Network*. 2012 GLS Conference [Paper PDF]

• Abramovich, S., Higashi, R., Hunkele, T. Schunn, C.D., Shoop, R. (2011, July) *Achievement Systems to Boost Achievement Motivation*. 2011 GLS Conference [Paper PDF]

## Approaches in Teaching Mathematics and Robotics

• Alfieri, L., Higashi, R., Shoop, R., Schunn, C.D., (2015, February). *Case studies of a robot-based game to shape interests and hone proportional reasoning skills.* International Journal of STEM Education. [Paper (PDF)]

• King, S., Stein, M., Schunn, C.D., (2012, May).*Designing Educative Guides: Reconceptualizing Teacher’s Role in Teacherless Cognitive Tutor-based Robotics Instruction.*Paper presented at the 2012 annual meeting of the American Society for Engineering Education, Vancouver, BC. [Paper (PDF)]

• Silk, E. M. (2011).*Resources for learning robots: Environments and framings connecting math in robotics*(Doctoral dissertation, University of Pittsburgh). Available from D-Scholarship at the University of Pittsburgh. (No. 8607) [Paper (PDF)] [Presentation (PDF)]

• Silk, E. M., Higashi, R., & Schunn, C. D. (2011, June).*Resources for robot competition success: Assessing math use in grade-school-level engineering design*. Paper to be presented at the annual meeting of the American Society for Engineering Education, Vancouver, BC, Canada. [Paper (PDF)] [Presentation (PDF)]

• Silk, E. M., & Schunn, C. D. (2011, June).*Calculational versus mechanistic mathematics in propelling the development of physical knowledge*. Paper to be presented at the 41st annual meeting of the Jean Piaget Society, Berkeley, CA, USA. [Paper (PDF)] [Presentation (PDF)]

• Silk, E. M., & Schunn, C. D. (2011, April).*Resources for learning robots: Facilitating the incorporation of mathematical models in students’ engineering design strategies.*Paper to be presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans, LA, USA. [Paper (PDF)] [Presentation (PDF)]

• Silk, E. M., Schunn, C. D., Shoop, R., & Stein, M. K. (2011, March).*The Robot Algebra Project*. Poster presented at the eighth annual NSF ITEST Summit, Arlington, VA, USA. [Poster (PDF)]

• Silk, E. M., Higashi, R., Shoop, R., & Schunn, C. D. (2010). *Designing technology activities that teach mathematics.* *The Technology Teacher, 69 *(4), 21-27. [Paper (PDF)]

• Silk, E. M., Schunn, C. D., & Shoop, R. (2009).*Synchronized robot dancing: Motivating efficiency & meaning in problem-solving with robotics. **Robot Magazine, 17*, 74-77. [Author Proof (PDF)]

• Silk, E. M., & Schunn, C. D. (2008, June).*Using robotics to teach mathematics: Analysis of a curriculum designed and implemented*. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society for Engineering Education, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. [Paper (PDF)] [Presentation (PDF)]

• Silk, E. M., Schunn, C. D., Higashi, R., Shoop, R., Dietrich, A., & Reed, R. (2007).*The use of robotics to teach mathematics*. Robotics Educators Conference, Butler, PA, USA. [Presentation (PDF)]

## Other Notable Research

## Badge Research

## National Studies around CS-STEM

• McKenna, J., Smith, A., Balasubramanian, R. (2018) Why teach Robotics - Exploring the potential applications of robotics in a classroom setting. [PDF]

• National Science Board (2010). Preparing the next generation of STEM Innovators: Identifying and developing our nation’s human capital. Publication NSB-10-33 of the National Science Foundation. http://www.nsf.gov/nsb/stem/innovators.jsp

• Gal-Ezer, J. & Stephenson, C. (2009). The Current State of Computer Science in U.S. High Schools: A Report from Two National Surveys. Journal for Computing Teachers, Spring 2009

• CSTA (Computer Science Teachers Association) (2009). CSTA National Secondary Computer Science Survey: Comparison of 2005, 2007, and 2009 Survey Results. http://csta.acm.org/Research/sub/CSTAResearch.html

• “Enrollments and Degree Production at US CS Departments Drop further in 2006/2007”, CRA Bulletin, March 2008. http://www.cra.org/wp/index.php?p=139

• “Fastest Growing Occupations”, Monthly Labor Review, November 2007. http://www.bls.gov/emp/emptab21.htm