Daily Interviews (PCS2, PMBC, PCS3)-The Common Cold Project - Carnegie Mellon University

Daily Interviews (PCS2, PMBC, PCS3)

In 3 of the 5 cold studies (PCS2, PMBC, PCS3), evening telephone interviews were conducted in the weeks prior to viral exposure (baseline) to assess participants’ daily social interactions, mood, health behaviors, and experience of physical symptoms. Participants in PCS2 were interviewed over 6 days--4 weekdays and 2 weekend days, whereas participants in PMBC and PCS3 were interviewed over 14 days--10 weekdays and 4 weekend days (see Interview Procedures). The largest part of the interviews assessed whether social interactions took place, for how long, with whom, and the quality of the interactions.  The PCS2 interview focused on interactions that lasted 10 minutes or longer.  PMBC and PCS3 used nearly identical interviews, with queries focused on the occurrence and evaluation of specific social activities in which subjects engaged (e.g., meals, meetings, recreational activities).  Because an interest of the PMBC study was to examine the effects of the marital relationship on cold risk, married participants answered additional items regarding the supportiveness of interactions with their spouse/partner.  Data collection forms used for conducting evening interviews in PCS2, PMBC, and PCS3 can be accessed below.

Daily Telephone Interview Forms

PCS2 PMBC (unmarried participants)                        
PCS3 (with social rhythm metric) PMBC (married participants)

The structure of the daily interviews is such that the same constructs are being measured multiple times over a period of 6 or 14 days.  Accordingly, cumulative measures of the various constructs were ascertained by averaging values across days.  Alternatively, associations within days and lagged associations can be analyzed using multilevel modeling. Data are available both in averaged (participant as case) and time-series (interview as case) formats.  Examples of published work using cumulative measures include Cohen et al. (2003)1  and Cohen et al. (2003)2, and examples of multi-level analyses include Brissette & Cohen (2002)3  and Janicki-Deverts et al. (2007)4.

Here we present tables that list person-level variables that were created by aggregating daily interview data across the total interview period.  Social interaction and activity data also can be aggregated at the level of the day if interest is in conducting multi-level analyses.  More detailed information on the specific interview items and how aggregate variables were created can be obtained by clicking the title of the table.  Detailed information on the interview procedures used in each study can be obtained by clicking on the appropriate protocol link below.


Daily Affect 1

PCS2 PMBC PCS3
Positive Affect
Negative Affect
Negative Affect Including Fatigue Subscale
Fearfulness   
Loneliness
1All affect scores are computed as averages across interview days.

Cold and Allergy Symptoms

PCS2 PMBC PCS3
Average daily cold symptom score
Total # interview days participant reported having problems with allergies
Did participant report having a cold or flu during the interview period?


Health Behaviors

PCS2 PMBC PCS3
Smoking
    Total # interview days that the participant smoked
    Average # cigarettes per day
Alcohol Consumption
    Total # interview days that the participant consumed alcohol
    Average # drinks per day
Exercise
    Total # interview days that the participant exercised
    Average duration of exercise per day
Diet
    Total # interview days that the participant ate breakfast
    % breakfasts that included high-quality protein

    Total # interview days that the participant ate…fruit; vegetables; bread or

    cereal; dairy products; and meat, poultry, or fish

Sleep
    Average sleep duration (hours)
    Average sleep efficiency
    Total # interview days participant felt rested


Social Interactions

PCS2 PMBC PCS3
Total Interactions and Time Spent Interacting
    Total # of social interactions during the interview period
    Average length (min) of social interactions
    Percentage of total interactions initiated by the participant

    Total # of unique individuals interacted with during the interview period

    Total # of different types of people interacted with during the interview period

    Percentage of total interactions that included the participant’s spouse/partner

    Total # of types of activities engaged in with one or more other persons

    Percentage of daily activities performed throughout the interview period that

    involved one or more other persons

    Total # of meals shared with one or more other persons

    Percentage of meals eaten throughout the interview period that were shared

    with one or more other persons

Average # of Interactions Per Day and Time Per Day Spent Interacting
    Average # of social interactions per day
    Average # of unique interaction partners per day
    Average # of different types of interaction partners per day
    Average time per day spent interacting
    Average time per day spent interacting with spouse/partner
    Average # of meals per day participant shared with another person
Total # of Specific Interpersonal Experiences During Interaction Period
    Total # of conflicts experienced during the interview period
    Total # of conflicts with spouse/partner
    Total # of interview days that included romantic time with spouse/partner
    Total # of interview days participant was hugged
    Total # of days participant shared something personal
    Total # of days someone shared something personal with the participant
    Total days someone tried to make the participant act in a healthy way
Average Interaction Quality
    Average pleasantness of interactions

    Average level of support received in response to sharing something personal

    Average level of support provided to someone who shared something personal

    with the participant

    Average extent to which participant was troubled by conflicts


Daily Activities

PCS2 PMBC PCS3
Total Time Spent During Interview Period Engaging in Various Activities
    Total time spent at home    ✔    ✔
    Total time spent at work    ✔    ✔
    Total time spent engaging in leisure activities at home    ✔    ✔
    Total time spent engaging in leisure activities away from home    ✔    ✔
    Total time spent doing work around the house    ✔    ✔
    Total time spent running family or personal errands away from home    ✔    ✔
Average Time Per Day Spent Engaging in Various Activities
    Average time per day spent at home    ✔    ✔
    Average time per day spent at work    ✔    ✔
    Average time per day spent engaging in leisure activities at home    ✔    ✔
    Average time per day spent engaging in leisure activities away from home    ✔    ✔
    Average time per day spent doing work around the house    ✔    ✔

    Average time per day spent running family or personal errands away from home

   ✔    ✔
Total Activities During Interview Period
    Total # meals    ✔    ✔
    Total # of leisure activities at home    ✔    ✔
    Total # of leisure activities away from home    ✔    ✔
    Total # activities involving work around the house    ✔    ✔

    Total # activities involving family/personal errands performed away from home

   ✔    ✔

    Total # of different kinds of activities engaged in during the interview period

    (sum of the following: whether participant worked, all leisure activities, work

    around the house activities, errand activities, meals)

   ✔    ✔
Average # Activities Per Day
    Average # meals per day    ✔    ✔
    Average # of leisure activities at home engaged in per day    ✔    ✔
    Average # of leisure activities away from home engaged in per day    ✔    ✔
    Average # activities per day involving work around the house    ✔    ✔

    Average # activities per day involving family/personal errands away from home

   ✔    ✔

    Average # of different kinds of activities engaged in per day

    (sum of the following:  whether participant worked, all leisure activities, work

    around the house activities, errand activities, meals)

   ✔    ✔
Total Days
    Total # days that participant worked outside the home    ✔    ✔
    Total # days that participant engaged in leisure activities at home    ✔    ✔
    Total # days that participant engaged in leisure activities away from home    ✔    ✔
    Total # days that participant did work around the house    ✔    ✔

    Total # days participant performed family/personal errands away from home

   ✔    ✔


References

1 Cohen, S., Doyle, W. J., Turner, R. B., Alper, C. M., & Skoner, D. P.  (2003). Emotional style and susceptibility to the common coldPsychosomatic Medicine, 65, 652-657.

2 Cohen, S., Doyle, W. J., Turner, R. B., Alper, C. M., & Skoner, D. P. (2003). Sociability and susceptibility to the common cold. Psychological Science, 14, 389-395.

3 Brissette, I., & Cohen, S. (2002). The contribution of individual differences in hostility to the associations between daily interpersonal conflict, affect, and sleep. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 1265-1274.

4 Janicki-Deverts, D., Cohen, S., Doyle, W. J. Turner, R. B., & Treanor, J. J. (2007). Infection-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines are associated with decreases in positive affect, but not increases in negative affect. Brain, Behavior and Immunity, 21, 301-307.