What We Don't Have In Our Archives
CMU Libraries expands initiatives to document more inclusive history
By Katy Rank LevMedia Inquiries
Most people consider library archives — records of old materials, categorized and easy to search — as the definitive records of an institution's history. And yet archives are not neutral. Increasingly, organizations are recognizing that archives do not tell a complete story.
At Carnegie Mellon University, the collections of preserved records skew heavily white and male, giving the impression that CMU's history lacked diversity. In fact, people of many ethnicities, socioeconomic backgrounds, sexual orientations and gender presentations have been members of the community since Carnegie Technical Schools first opened in 1905.
In recognition of this absence in recordkeeping, University Libraries has assembled an exhibit entitled "What We Don't Have" that aims to fill the holes in CMU's history. The exhibit emphasizes archivists' training to be unbiased, objective stewards and acknowledges that some stories have been prioritized over others.
Shannon Riffe, director of marketing, communications and external relations for University Libraries, said the exhibit itself is just the beginning of the Libraries' work toward diversity, equity and inclusion (DEI).
"We are acknowledging the stories that have not been prioritized," she said. "And what's exciting is to also see this effort supported at the university level. We shared our plans as part of the university's Strategic Actions on Confronting Racism and Promoting Equity and Inclusion in July and are delighted that the university has provided support for a dedicated DEI archivist position. It's a great signal that the university and the libraries are committing to acquiring and processing these important collections."
SPIRIT was originally founded as the Black Student Organization, and for many years generally identified as a multicultural organization. In 2017, the organization identified itself as the Black Student Union. Archival items, such as these photo albums from the 1986 SPIRIT fashion show, help to preserve the history of the entire university and more accurately tell its story.
Good Stewards of Vulnerable Communities
One such collection is the university's CMAP collection, which stands for the Carnegie Mellon Action Project, a program started in the 1960s to increase the recruitment and retention of Black students. The archivists are processing materials from their collection for the first time.
"Processing our CMAP collection will tell the story of Carnegie Mellon's African American students that has never really been told before," Riffe said.
Along with the online exhibit, the Libraries are bringing a series of speakers to talk about community archives for underrepresented communities. Harrison Apple, creator of the Pittsburgh Queer History Project, spoke in October about the archives of the LGBTQ+ community and the difficulties in archiving a community that in some ways does not want their story to be visible.
Prioritizing What's There
Archivists don't like the stereotypes created by movies like Citizen Kane, showing dusty halls full of endless, unlabeled boxes. But there is some truth to the image, as CMU currently has over 3,000 boxes in the second floor of Hunt Library, plus 5,000 linear feet of materials in a Penn Avenue warehouse and even more stored at Iron Mountain.
"Fifty percent of that material is unprocessed," said Julia Corrin, university archivist.
The university has only employed archivists since the 1980s, and the work of sorting through an ever-growing collection and making the material searchable is daunting. Corrin explains that if material is unprocessed, researchers don't know it's available and it cannot contribute to either the storytelling or information gathering necessary to solve society's challenges.
Corrin says the university has been aware, for example, that the archives contain papers and materials from George Corrin (no relation to Julia), likely the first Black student in the School of Design. George Corrin worked as a set designer and helped pioneer the design of television news, including the sets for the Kennedy-Nixon presidential debates.
"We've had this material for 20 years," said Julia Corrin, "but they've essentially been hidden from the public due to lack of description."
Julia Corrin is excited by the potential of a dedicated DEI archivist who can process the materials CMU already has in the archives and also reach out to obtain materials that will create a more complete history of the people and the work of the CMU community.
The concept of archives has been around since ancient Egypt, and Corrin explains that their primary role had been to maintain records documenting the relationship of citizens to governments.
"Archives have always been meant to be a place of transparency to help hold people accountable," Corrin said. "Not everyone sees our work as integral to society, but if we really think about how to tell the stories of this moment and how we got here, we need archives."
Riffe said, "Archivists are the keepers of the institutional history — we even have a cross section of The Fence — so it's important that our University Archives are reflective of our CMU community."
To that end, Brian Mathews, University Libraries' associate dean of innovation, preservation and access points out that the university has created a fund to support the collection and preservation of more diverse collections.
"Inclusivity is an area that our archivists really want to explore further, to be open and thoughtful about our collections. While the exhibit provided us with an opportunity to reflect on what's missing and why, the newly-funded archivist position and the supporting fund gives us a chance to do something about it," Mathews said. "This work helps us ensure we're as representative as possible of the research, education, service, culture and engagement happening across CMU for the years ahead, and the impact we have on the world around us."