Carnegie Mellon University


  1. T. Yuksel, S. Litster, V. Viswanathan,  J.J. Michalek, “Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle LiFePO4 Battery Life Implications of Thermal Management, Driving Conditions, and Regional Climate,” Journal of Power Sources, in press, (2016).
  2. S. Frisco, A. Kumar, J.F. Whitacre, S. Litster, “Understanding Li-Ion Battery Anode Degradation and Pore Morphological Changes through Nano-Resolution X-ray Computed Tomography,” Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 163 (13), pp. A2636-A2640, (2016).
  3. B.-K. Hong, P. Mandal, J.-G. Oh, S. Litster, “On the impact of water activity on reversal tolerant fuel cell anode performance and durability”, Journal of Power Sources, 328, pp,. 280-288, (2016).
  4. M.B. Burkholder and S. Litster, “Characterizing dynamic hysteresis and fractal statistics of chaotic two-phase flow and application to fuel cells,” Physics of Fluids, 28, 053301, (2016).
  5. A.G. Kashkooli, S. Farhad, D.U. Lee, K. Feng, S. Litster, S. Komini Babu, L.Zhu, Z. Chen, “Multiscale Modeling of Lithium-ion Battery Electrodes Based on Nano-scale X-ray Computed Tomography,” Journal of Power Sources, 307, pp.496-509, (2016).
  6. W.K. Epting and S. Litster, “Microscale Measurements of Oxygen Concentration across the Thickness of Diffusion Media in Operating Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells,” Journal of Power Sources, 306, pp. 674-684, (2016).
  7. S. Komini Babu, R.W. Atkinson, A.B. Papandrew, S. Litster, “Vertically-Oriented Polymer Electrolyte Nanofiber Catalyst Support for Thin Film PEM Fuel Cell Electrodes”, ChemElectroChem, 2, pp. 1752-1759 (2015).
  8. H. Liu, W.K. Epting, S. Litster, “Gas Transport Resistance in Polymer Electrolyte Thin Films at the Active Site in Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells,” Langmuir, 31, pp. 9853-9858 (2015).
  9. A.T. Naseri, B.A. Peppley; J.G. Pharoah, P. Mandal, S. Litster; N. Abatzoglou, “X-ray tomography-based analysis of transport and reaction in the catalyst coating of a reformer,” Chemical Engineering Science, 138, pp. 499-509 (2015).
  10. A. Kumar, P. Mandal, Y. Zhang, and S. Litster, “Image Segmentation of Nanoscale Zernike Phase Contrast X-ray CT Images,” Journal of Applied Physics, 117, pp. 183102 (2015).
  11. H. He, S. Averick, P. Mandal, H. Ding, S. Li, J. Gelb, N. Kotwal, A. Merkle, S. Litster and K. Matyjaszewski, “Multifunctional Hydrogels with Reversible 3D Ordered Macroporous Structures”, Advanced Science, 2  (5), (2015).
  12. R. Taspinar, S. Litster, and E.C. Kumbur, “A Computational Study to Investigate the Effects of the Bipolar Plate and Gas Diffusion Layer Interface in Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells”, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 44, pp. 7124-7134 (2015).
  13. S. Komini Babu, A.I. Mohamed, J.F. Whitacre, S. Litster, “Multiple Imaging Mode X-ray Computed Tomography for Distinguishing Active and Inactive Phases in Lithium-Ion Battery Cathodes”, Journal of Power Sources, 283, pp.  314-319 (2015).
  14. M.B. Burkholder, S. Litster, “Stabilization of polymer electrolyte fuel cell voltage with reduced order Lyapunov exponent feedback and corrective pressure perturbations”, Journal of Power Sources, 275, pp. 408-418, (2015).
  15. N.S. Siefert, S. Litster, “Exergy & economic analysis of biogas fueled SOFC systems”, J. Power Sources, 272, pp. 386-397, (2014).
  16. A.Z. Weber, R.L. Borup, R.M. Darling, P.K. Das, T.J. Dursch, W. Gu, D. Harvey, A. Kusoglu, S. Litster, M. Mench, R. Mukundan, J.P. Owejan, J. Pharoah, M. Secanell, I. Zenyuk, “A Critical Review of Modeling Transport Phenomena in Polymer‐Electrolyte Fuel Cells”, J. Electrochem. Soc., 161, pp. F1254-F1299, (2014).
  17. I.V. Zenyuk, R. Taspinara, A.R. Kalidindia, E.C. Kumbur, S. Litster, “Computational and Experimental Analysis of Water Transport at Component Interfaces in Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells”, J. Electrochem. Soc., 161, pp. F3091-F3103, (2014).
  18. I.V. Zenyuk, S. Litster, “Modeling ion conduction and electrochemical reactions in water films on thin-film metal electrodes with application to low temperature fuel cells”, Electrochimica Acta, 146, pp. 194-206, (2014).
  19. M.B. Burkholder, N.S. Siefert, S. Litster, “Nonlinear analysis of voltage dynamics in a polymer electrolyte fuel cell due to two-phase channel flow”, Journal of Power Sources, 267, pp. 243-254, (2014).
  20. N.S. Siefert, B. Chang, S. Litster, “Exergy & economic analysis of a CaO-looping gasifier for IGFC-CCS & IGCC-CCS”, Applied Energy, 128, pp. 230-245, (2014).
  21. K.C. Hess, J.F. Whitacre, S. Litster, “Spatiotemporal electrochemical measurements across an electric double layer capacitor electrode with application to aqueous sodium hybrid batteries,” Journal of Power Sources, 248, pp. 348-355, (2014).
  22. S. Litster, W.K. Epting, E.A. Wargo, S.R. Kalidindi, E.C. Kumbur, "Morphological Analyses of Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Electrodes with Nano-Scale Computed Tomography Imaging," Fuel Cells, In press, (2013). DOI: 10.1002/fuce.201300008 [PDF]
  23. I.V. Zenyuk, E.C. Kumbur, S. Litster, "Deterministic contact mechanics model applied to electrode interfaces in polymer electrolyte fuel cells and interfacial water accumulation," Journal of Power Sources, 241, pp. 379-387 (2013). [PDF][Supplementary PDF]
  24. N. Siefert, D. Shekhawat, S. Litster, D. Berry, "Steam–Coal Gasification Using CaO and KOH for in Situ Carbon and Sulfur Capture," Energy & Fuels, DOI 10.1021/ef302192p (2013). [PDF][News]
  25. N.S. Siefert,  S. Litster, "Exergy and economic analyses of advanced IGCC–CCS and IGFC–CCS power plants," Applied Energy, 107, pp. 315–328 (2013). [PDF]
  26. A.R. Kalidindi, R. Taspinar, S. Litster, E.C. Kumbur, "A two-phase model for studying the role of microporous layer and catalyst layer interface on polymer electrolyte fuel cell performance," International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 38, pp. 9297-9309 (2013)
  27. K. C. Hess, J. F. Whitacre, S. Litster, "In situ Measurements of Potential, Current and Charging Current Across an EDL Capacitance Anode for an Aqueous Sodium Hybrid Battery," J. Electrochemical Society, 159, pp. A1351-A1359 (2012). [PDF][News]
  28. N. Siefert, D. Shekhawat, S. Litster, D. Berry, "Molten Catalytic Coal Gasification with In-Situ Carbon and Sulphur Capture," Energy & Environmental Science, accepted - DOI 10.1039/C2EE21989A (2012). [PDF][News]
  29. I.V. Zenyuk, S. Litster, "Spatially Resolved Modeling of Electric Double Layers and Surface Chemistry for the Hydrogen Oxidation Reaction in Water-Filled Platinum–Carbon Electrodes," J. Phys. Chem. C, 116, pp. 9862-9875 (2012). [PDF][Supplementary PDF][News]
  30. W.K. Epting, S. Litster, "Effects of an Agglomerate Size Distribution on the PEFC Agglomerate Model," Int. J. Hydrogen Energ., 37, pp. 8505-8511 (2012). [PDF][Supplementary PDF][News]
  31. W. K. Epting, J. Gelb, S. Litster, “Resolving the Three-Dimensional Microstructure of Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Electrodes using Nanometer-Scale X-ray Computed Tomography,” Advanced Functional Materials, 22, pp. 555-560 (2012). [PDF][Supplementary PDF][News]
  32. K. C. Hess, W. K. Epting, S. Litster, “Spatially Resolved, In Situ Potential Measurements through Porous Electrodes As Applied to Fuel Cells,” Analytical Chemistry, 83, pp. 9492-9498 (2011). [PDF] [News]
  33. N. Siefert and S. Litster, "Voltage loss and fluctuation in PEM fuel cells: The role of cathode channel plurality and air stoichiometric ratio," J. Power Sources, 196, pp. 1948-1954, 2011. [PDF]
  34. F. Kivanc and S. Litster, “Pumping with electroosmosis of the second kind in mesoporous skeletons,” Sensors Actuators: B. Chemical, 151, pp. 394-401, 2011. [PDF]
  35. S. Litster, M. Suss, and J.G. Santiago, “A two-liquid electroosmotic pump using low applied voltage and power,” Sensors Actuators: A. Physical,  163, pp. 311-314, 2010.
  36. T. Fabian, R. O’Hayre, S. Litster, F.B. Prinz, J. G. Santiago, “Active Water Management at the Cathode of a Planar Air-breathing PEM Fuel Cell Using an Electroosmotic Pump,” J. Power Sources, 195, pp. 3640-3644, 2010.
  37. T. Fabian, R. O’Hayre, S. Litster, F.B. Prinz, J. G. Santiago, “Passive Water Management at the Cathode of a Planar Air-breathing PEM Fuel Cell,” J. Power Sources, 195, pp. 3201-3206, 2010.
  38. S. Litster, C.R. Buie, and J.G. Santiago, “Engineering model for coupling wicks and electroosmotic pumps with proton exchange membrane fuel cells for active water management,” Electrochimica Acta, 54, pp. 6223-6233, 2009.
  39. S. Litster and J.G. Santiago, "Dry gas operation of proton exchange membrane fuel cells with parallel channels: Non-porous versus porous plates,” Journal of Power Sources, Vol. 188, No.1, pp. 82-88, 2008.
  40. S. Litster and N. Djilali, “Theoretical Performance Analysis of Micro-Structured Air-Breathing Fuel Cells,” Electrochemical and Solid State Letters, Vol. 11, No. 1, pp. B1-B5, 2008.
  41. D. Strickland, S. Litster, J.G. Santiago, “Current Distribution in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell with Active Water Management,” Journal of Power Sources, Vol. 174, pp. 272-281, 2007.
  42. C. R. Buie, D. Kim, S. Litster and J.G. Santiago, “An Electroosmotic Fuel Pump for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells.,” Electrochemical and Solid State Letters, Vol. 10, No. 11, pp. B196-B200, 2007.
  43. S. Litster, C.R. Buie, T. Fabian, J.K. Eaton and J.G. Santiago, “Active Water Management for PEM Fuel Cells,” Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 154, No. 10, pp. B1049-B1058, 2007.
  44. R. O’Hayre, T. Fabian, S. Litster, F.B. Prinz, and J.G. Santiago, “Engineering Model of a Passive Planar Air Breathing Fuel Cell Cathode,” Journal of Power Sources, Vol. 167, No. 1, pp. 118-129, 2007.
  45. S. Litster and N. Djilali, “Mathematical Modelling of Ambient Air-Breathing Fuel Cells for Portable Devices”, Electrochimica Acta, Vol. 52, No. 11, pp. 3849-3862, 2007.
  46. S. Litster , J. Pharoah, G. McLean , N. Djilali, “Computational Analysis of Heat and Mass Transfer in a Micro-Structured PEMFC Cathode”, Journal of Power Sources, Vol. 156, No. 2, pp.334-344, 2006. (Selected by editor for the  FUEL CELL Virtual Journal, Vol. 3, No. 8, August 2005)
  47. S. Litster , D. Sinton , N. Djilali, “Ex situ Visualization of Liquid Water Transport in PEM Fuel Cell Gas Diffusion Layers”, Journal of Power Sources, Vol. 154, No. 1, pp.95-105, March 2006. (Research featured in The Fuel Cell Review, Institute of Physics Publishing, Vol. 2, No. 5, Oct./Nov. 2005 )
  48. S. Litster, J.G. Pharoah, and N. Djilali, “Convective Mass Transfer in Helical Pipes: Effect of Curvature and Torsion”, Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 42, No. 5, pp. 387-397, March 2006.
  49. S. Litster and G. McLean, “PEM fuel cell electrodes”, Journal of Power Sources, Vol. 130, No. 1-2, pp. 61-76, May 2004. (6 months as #1 on Elsevier’s “TOP 25 Hottest Articles” for Journal of Power Sources, Also in Fuel Cells Compendium, eds. N. Brandon and D. Thompsett, Elsevier, 632 pages, 2005).