Carnegie Mellon University

IDeaS Center and CASOS Center – Under Direction of Dr. Kathleen M. Carley

  There is no doubt that a global pandemic is a scary phenomenon.  Hence, it is not surprising that many stories regarding the event will surface and be communicated.  For COVID-19 a number of stories containing inaccurate or misleading information have populated social media.  We list here the stories of this type that have been identified.  Whether they are being spread by those knowing they are inaccurate maliciously, as a joke, or simply to discuss the inaccuracy is under study at this time.  The point here is simply that these stories are not accurate.

   It is important to note that in every disaster or crisis situation disinformation and misinformation appear. It is also the case that many of these stories are short lived and have little impact.  Further, many of these stories can be stopped simply by people calling them out, or making fun of them with satire.  In many cases the spread of the stories can increase if they are rebroadcast by celebrities or news agencies.  The irony is that in many cases, readers cannot tell when satire is being used, and may mistake the satire for fact.  Another irony is that stories that talk about a story containing disinformation may spread both the inaccurate information and the information that it is inaccurate.

Below are updates to our research findings by date:

List of Known Misinformation and Disinformation Regarding Corona Virus in Social Media [pdf]

IDeaS Center and CASOS Center – Under Direction of Dr. Kathleen M. Carley

Last updated 3/27/2020

Stories containing inaccurate information regarding COVID-19 fall into many categories:

1) Stories relating inaccurate information about cures or preventative measures or treatments that make it worse
2) Stories relating inaccurate information about the nature of the virus
3) Stories relating inaccurate information that are conspiracy stories
4) Stories relating false diagnosis procedures
5) Stories relating inaccurate information about emergency responses
6) Stories relating inaccurate but funny or feel good stories
7) Stories relating to social misbehavior

We note that there are also stories containing inaccurate information with respect to the number of deaths, politicians’ response, the original source, the first reported cases, and other government activities. Such stories have not been tracked.

Following is a list of stories of each type.

Preventions and Cures

Stories relating inaccurate information about cures or preventative measures, or things that make it worse

1. gargling with bleach will prevent/cure – also appears as satire
2. drinking corona beer will prevent/cure – also appears as satire
3. taking acetic acid will prevent/cure
4. taking steroids will prevent/cure
5. taking colloidal silver will cure
6. taking MMS (which contains chlorine dioxide) can cure
7. using essential oils will prevent
8. gargling with salt water will prevent/cure
9. gargling with ethanol will prevent/cure
10. eating raw garlic will prevent
11. garlic will cure
12. spraying normal drinking alcohol on body will prevent
13. spraying chlorine on body prevents coronavirus
14. drinking or washing in sesame oil prevents coronavirus
15. using a hand dryer will kill corona virus
16. drinking water every 15 minutes will wash virus to the stomach where it will die
17. drinking hot water will kill the virus
18. avoiding eating ice cream will prevent
19. rinsing your nose with saline will prevent
20. aspirating boiling water vapor for five minutes deactivates the coronavirus
21. having a pneumonia shot will prevent you from getting the disease
22. having a flu shot will prevent you from getting the disease
23. using cocaine prevents/cures
24. Asians are more likely to get COVID-19
25. Wearing more than one mask will help prevent the virus
26. It is dangerous to receive packages from china
27. It is dangerous to eat in a Chinese restaurant (more so than other restaurants)
28. Cold weather and snow can kill off the SARS-CoV-2 virus
29. Warmer weather will kill off the SARS-CoV-2 virus
30. Taking a hot bath prevents COVID-19
31. Hand dryers are effective in killing off the SARS-CoV-2 virus
32. Antibiotics are effective in preventing and treating the SARS-CoV-2 virus
33. Vinegar is more effective than hand sanitizer
34. Gargling with Vinegar prevents COVID-19
35. Hand sanitizer does not work
36. Shuanghuanglian (Chinese medical herb) can prevent
37. drinking cow urine and applying cow dung on the body can cure coronavirus
38. there is no risk to mass public gatherings as the virus is impossible to contract outdoors
39. drinking water every 15 minutes will prevent coronavirus
40. Miracle Mineral Supplement/Solution (MMS) cures
41. silver-infused toothpaste will kill the virus
42. Kenneth Copeland can cure the virus directly from his tv studio
43. you have to be with someone for 10 minutes to catch the virus from them
44. taking ibuprofen makes COVID-19 worse, especially in new patients
45. reading the Quran will make you immune
46. you can kill the virus by holding a blow dryer up to your nose
47. Sheep head’s soup is a preventative
48. Lemon and bicarbonate kill the virus
49. Lemon juice with salt is a cure
50. Lemon juice with Chinese mesona is a cure
51. Lemon juice with turmeric prevents
52. Consuming alcoholic beverages may help reduce the risk of infection by the novel coronavirus
53. Coronavirus will be cured after 14 hours of curfew
54. Bitter gourd juice can cure coronavirus in two hours
55. “Gale of the wind” and neem tree leaves can prevent corona virus
56. Sitting in the sunlight will cure COVID-19
57. Coronavirus can be cured by sniffing clove and camphor
58. Green chiretta can cure
59. Eating bananas will prevent
60. 15 minutes in Sauna will kill the virus
61. Morel mushrooms increase risk by 200%
62. Eating onions with salt will cure
63. Propolis cures COVID-19
64. Arsenic album-30 homeopathic medicine can prevent coronavirus
65. Drinking boiled garlic water cures
66. A bovine vaccine can be used to inoculate people against coronavirus
67. Shaving your beard prevents
68. Turkish raki prevents
69. Constant sex kills coronavirus
70. An alkaline diet prevents
71. Volcanic ash kills coronavirus
72. Ketamine can cure
73. Putting an opinion in your room can prevent
74. Black tea can prevent
75. Pu’er tea can prevent
76. Environmental enzymes can prevent
77. Cocaine kills coronavirus
78. Eating Nigella with honey prevents as it contains 100% hydroxychloroquine
79. Masks can be sanitized by microwaving them for 2-3 minutes
80. Teas with lemon and bicarbonate can cure
81. Mustard oil kills the coronavirus
82. Coffee can cure COVID-19
83. Chlorine dioxide can cure COVID-19
84. Green tea can cure COVID-19
85. Eating high alkalinity foods can cure COVID-19
86. Lifting lockdowns will exterminate coronavirus

Nature of Virus or Disease

Stories relating inaccurate information about the nature of the virus

1. Corona virus is just a cold
2. COVID-19 is a normal flu and is no more dangerous than that
3. Children cannot catch corona virus
4. SARS-CoV-2 is mutating faster than normal viruses
5. Pregnant women who have COVID-19 can pass the virus through the placenta to the unborn child
6. COVID-19 only affects the elderly
7. The SARS-CoV-2 virus can be transmitted through mosquito bite
8. Africans are immune
9. Vegetarians are immune
10. People in India can resist the coronavirus
11. People with type-A blood are more prone to get coronavirus
12. Everyone with COVID-19 dies
13. There is no corona (virus)
14. This is “fake news” invented by Trump to strengthen the dollar
15. Chloroquine in any amount can cure COVID-19
16. The outbreak of covid -9 is not real 1
17. COVID-19 breeds rapidly in toilet paper
18. Turks area immune to COVID-19
19. Coronavirus is caused by snakes
20. Coronavirus activates all bacterias and viruses in your body
21. Streets in Roma filled with dead birds due to corona poisoning in air

Conspiracy theories including bioweapons

Stories relating inaccurate information regarding weaponization or other conspiracies

1. It was created in a lab
2. It is a US/CIA created bioweapon
3. It is a Chinese bioweapon
4. It is a Russian bioweapon
5. It leaked from a bio-weapons lab in China
6. It leaked from the Wuhan Institute of Virology in China
7. It was caused by an infected rat biting a student in the Wuhan Institute of Virology in China
8. March 12, Ayatollah Khamenei falsely claimed that there is evidence that COVID-19 might be a “biological attack.”
9. Electromagnetic fields and the introduction of 5G wireless technologies led to COVID-19 outbreaks
10. Washing hands is propaganda by soap companies
11. This was a plan from Gate Foundation to increase the Gate’s wealth
12. Qatar knew about COVID-19 since 2015 and Doha paid billions to China to “grow the virus”
13. Corona virus is being spread by Coca-Cola
14. US military brought the virus to Wuhan on October 2019
15. Bill Gates and Vatican have a plan to depopulate world with coronavirus vaccine
16. Saddam Hussein in 90s told his cabinet that US threatened to spread coronavirus if he didn’t follow US commands
17. Cuba gave a vaccine to China
18. Cuba has a vaccine called Interferon
19. Israel found the cure
20. China finds a vaccine 3/17
21. Institut Pasteur in France invented COVID-19
22. COVID-19 is no worse than other outbreaks, it is just being hyped to hurt Trump
23. COVID-19 is a scripted narrative to justify closed borders
24. COVID-19 is a scripted narrative to force people to stay at home
25. Egypt developed cure (doctor developed a fluid)
26. Egypt gave China the vaccine
27. US has 40 thousands troops immune to COVID-19 conducting an invasion of Europe
28. CDC admits coronavirus originated in the US
29. Cow urine and feces can cure
30. COVID-19 was created in 2014 by an English Institute
31. Ecuadorean doctor develops vaccine 3/3
32. Filipino student develops vaccine and gets 5million US from Alibaba founder Jack Ma
33. Raúl Rodolfo Abhduz Khan, biochemical engineer from Karmalah Laboratories, is the creator of coronavirus.
34. RS 2000 notes scattered in Delhi to spread coronavirus
35. US soldiers who drank snake blood in Thailand carried coronavirus to Wuhan for Military World Games
36. Coronavirus is a hoax used to coverup the secret installation of a 5G network in Zagreb Croatia
37. American researcher Charles Lieber arrested for selling SARS-Cov-2 to Chinese
38. 5G exposure compromises hemoglobin in cells and worsens COVID-19 pandemic

False Diagnostic Procedures

Stories describing false diagnosis procedures

  1. If you can hold your breath for 10 seconds you don’t have COVID-19

Emergency Measures

Stories describing inaccurate information about emergency measures

1. NYC is under martial law 3/20
2. Only people who have tested positive need to stay home and isolate themselves
3. Only large gatherings have to be stopped
4. All human interaction needs to be stopped
5. Coronavirus is spread only by coughing and sneezing
6. Social distancing will lead to dramatic immediate results
7. 1 month of social distancing will stop the epidemic permanently
8. Friend/relative at Pentagon said the US is going on total lockdown
9. Friend/relative at White House said the US is going on total lockdown
10. Russia has unleashed over 500 lions to ensure that people stay inside their homes amid the coronavirus outbreak
11. In Spain – free internet during 60 days due to quarantine
12. Polish telecommunications company used quarantine as a cover up to put 100 5G antennas in Gdynia
13. Riots in London due to unavailability of food leading to lockdown and martial law 3/22
14. In USA Helicopters are spraying disinfectants to try to eradicate coronavirus
15. Bangalore Municipal body will be spraying medicine in the air to kill coronavirus
16. Homeland Security is mobilizing the national guard to combat coronavirus 3/20
17. Janta curfew in India will break the chain of transmission
18. Elderly people in Brazil who are caught wandering outside with have their pensions cancelled by the government
19. People in Spain are committing suicide due to quarantine 3/20
20. Parks in Adra Spain are being fumigated with poison
21. Spanish helicopters are spreading medicines against coronavirus
22. Oman helicopters are spraying pesticides to eliminate coronavirus
23. Venezuela helicopters are going to spread chemicals against coronavirus
24. Trump will impose a nationwide mandatory quarantine in 38 to 72 hours 3/16
25. Military in Philadelphia are preparing to invoke martial law and bring citizens to FEMA camps
26. Supermarkets are recalling coronavirus-infected toilet paper
27. Pence urges people with coronavirus to go to police 3/2
28. Police in China kill COVID-19 patients 3/2
29. Chinese coronavirus patients are being cremated alive 2/25
30. Hungary forcing men over 50 to quarantine in government facilities
31. Countries throwing dead bodies of COVID-19 victims into sea
32. Kenya hires Maasai tribe to enforce lockdown
33. Idia deploys army in Telangana to curb coronavirus situation
34. Indian police beat street children not abiding by lockdown

Good News Stories

Stories relating inaccurate but funny or feel good stories

1. Pandemic caused Venice’s water to be clear so the swans returned
2. Pandemic caused Venice’s water to be clear so the dolphins returned
3. Elephants break into a village due to social distancing and get drunk on corn wine
4. Sri Lankan Sambar deer graze on Yala Park beach
5. Deers walking down streets in Ciudad Real Spain
6. Deers rome Pudukkottai, Tamil Nadu

Misbehavior and Scams Stories

Stories relating inaccurate accounts misbehavior or crimes that violate lockdown or social distancing

1. Kerala migrant laborers gambling with huge stashes of money
2. Hindu man in Rajathan killed by Muslims amidst the lockdown
3. Starving family in India commits suicide
4. Americans placed a nude statue of President Trump in NYC because he failed to handle the US situation
5. Criminals handing out masks with chemicals to make people pass out so they can commit robbery
6. Brazil takes money from hospitals to finance cultural projects
7. CostCo stimulus plan food for providing your information
8. 24 hour hotline for getting essential food items during Sri Lankan curfew
9. Hindus drop religious statues in sea because they are useless in COVID-19 crisis
10. People in India beating police enforcing lockdown
11. Man in Italy commits suicide after he loses family to coronavirus
12. 59 people die as pastor gives them Dettol to drink to prevent coronavirus
13. Delivery boy opens packers of bread and spits on slices to spread corona virus
14. Muslim owned restaurants in Bengaluru are spreading corona virus by spitting in food
List of Known Misinformation and Disinformation Regarding Corona Virus in Social Media [pdf]
IDeaS Center and CASOS Center – Under Direction of Dr. Kathleen M. Carley
Last updated 3/27/2020

Stories containing inaccurate information regarding COVID 19 fall into at least three categories:

  • Stories relating inaccurate information about cures or preventative measures or treatments that make it worse
  • Stories relating inaccurate information about the nature of the virus
  • Stories relating inaccurate information that are conspiracy stories
  • Stories relating false diagnosis procedures
  • Stories relating inaccurate information about emergency responses
  • Stories relating inaccurate but funny or feel good stories

We note that there are also stories containing inaccurate information with respect to the number of deaths, politicians’ response, the original source, the first reported cases, and other government activities.  Such stories have not been tracked.

Following is a list of stories of each type.

Preventions and Cures

Stories relating inaccurate information about cures or preventative measures, or things that make it worse:

  1. gargling with bleach will prevent/cure – also appears as satire
  2. drinking corona beer will prevent/cure – also appears as satire
  3. taking acetic acid will prevent/cure 
  4. taking steroids will prevent/cure 
  5. taking colloidal silver will cure
  6. taking MMS (which contains chlorine dioxide) can cure
  7. using essential oils will prevent 
  8. gargling with salt water will prevent/cure 
  9. gargling with ethanol will prevent/cure 
  10. eating raw garlic will prevent 
  11. garlic will cure
  12. spraying normal drinking alcohol on body will prevent
  13. spraying chlorine on body prevents coronavirus 
  14. drinking or washing in sesame oil prevents coronavirus 
  15. using a hand dryer will kill corona virus
  16. drinking water every 15 minutes will wash virus to the stomach where it will die
  17. drinking hot water will kill the virus
  18. avoiding eating ice cream will prevent
  19. rinsing your nose with saline will prevent
  20. aspirating boiling water vapor for five minutes deactivates the coronavirus
  21. having a pneumonia shot will prevent you from getting the disease
  22. having a flu shot will prevent you from getting the disease
  23. using cocaine prevents/cures
  24. Asians are more likely to get Covid 19
  25. Wearing more than one mask will help prevent the virus
  26. It is dangerous to receive packages from china
  27. It is dangerous to eat in a Chinese restaurant (more so than other restaurants)
  28. Cold weather and snow can kill off the SARS-CoV-2 virus
  29. Warmer weather will kill off the SARS-CoV-2 virus
  30. Taking a hot bath prevents COVID-19
  31. Hand dryers are effective in killing off the SARS-CoV-2 virus
  32. Antibiotics are effective in preventing and treating the SARS-CoV-2 virus
  33. Vinegar is more effective than hand sanitizer
  34. Gargling with Vinegar prevents covid-19
  35. Hand sanitizer does not work
  36. Shuanghuanglian (Chinese medical herb) can prevent
  37. drinking cow urine and applying cow dung on the body can cure coronavirus
  38. there is no risk to mass public gatherings as the virus is impossible to contract outdoors
  39. drinking water every 15 minutes will prevent coronavirus
  40. Miracle Mineral Supplement cures
  41. silver-infused toothpaste will kill the virus
  42. Kenneth Copeland can cure the virus directly from his tv studio
  43. you have to be with someone for 10 minutes to catch the virus from them
  44. taking ibuprofen makes COVID-19 worse, especially in new patients
  45. reading the Quran will make you immune
  46. you can kill the virus by holding a blow dryer up to your nose
  47. Sheep head’s soup is a preventative
  48. Lemon and bicarbonate kill the virus
  49. Lemon juice with salt is a cure
  50. Lemon juice with Chinese mesona is a cure
  51. Lemon juice with turmeric prevents
  52. Consuming alcoholic beverages may help reduce the risk of infection by the novel coronavirus
  53. Coronavirus will be cured after 14 hours of curfew
  54. Bitter gourd juice can cure coronavirus in two hours
  55. “Gale of the wind” and neem tree leaves can prevent corona virus
  56. Sitting in the sunlight will cure COVID-19
  57. Coronavirus can be cured by sniffing clove and camphor
  58. Green chiretta can cure
  59. Eating bananas will prevent
  60. 15 minutes in Sauna will kill the virus
  61. Morel mushrooms increase risk by 200%
  62. Eating onions with salt will cure
  63. Propolis cures COVID-19
  64. Arsenic album-30 homeopathic medicine can prevent coronavirus
  65. Drinking boiled garlic water cures
  66. A bovine vaccine can be used to inoculate people against coronavirus
  67. Shaving your beard prevents
  68. Turkish raki prevents
  69. Constant sex kills coronavirus
  70. An alkaline diet prevents
  71. Volcanic ash kills coronavirus
  72. Ketamine can cure
  73. Putting an opinion in your room can prevent
  74. Black tea can prevent
  75. Pu’er tea can prevent
  76. Environmental enzymes can prevent
  77. Cocaine kills coronavirus

Nature of Virus or Disease

Stories relating inaccurate information about the nature of the virus:

  1. Corona virus is just a cold 
  2. Covid 19 is a normal flu and is no more dangerous than that
  3. Children cannot catch corona virus
  4. SARS-CoV-2 is mutating faster than normal viruses 
  5. Pregnant women who have Covid 19 can pass the virus through the placenta to the unborn child
  6. Covid 19 only affects the elderly
  7. The SARS-CoV-2 virus can be transmitted through mosquito bite
  8. Africans are immune
  9. Vegetarians are immune
  10. People in India can resist the coronavirus
  11. People with type-A blood are more prone to get coronavirus
  12. Everyone with Covid 19 dies
  13. There is no corona (virus)
  14. This is “fake news” invented by Trump to strengthen the dollar
  15. Chloroquine in any amount can cure Covid 19
  16. The outbreak of covid 19 is not real
  17. COVID-19 breeds rapidly in toilet paper
  18. Turks area immune to covid-19
  19. Coronavirus is caused by snakes
  20. Coronavirus activates all bacterias and viruses in your body

Conspiracy theories including bioweapons

Stories relating inaccurate information regarding weaponization or other conspiracies:

  1. It was created in a lab
  2. It is a US/CIA created bioweapon
  3. It is a Chinese bioweapon
  4. It is a Russian bioweapon
  5. It leaked from a bio-weapons lab in China
  6. It leaked from the Wuhan Institute of Virology in China
  7. It was caused by an infected rat biting a student in the Wuhan Institute of Virology in China
  8. March 12, Ayatollah Khamenei falsely claimed that there is evidence that COVID-19 might be a “biological attack.”
  9. Electromagnetic fields and the introduction of 5G wireless technologies led to Covid 19 outbreaks
  10. Washing hands is propaganda by soap companies
  11. This was a plan from Gate Foundation to increase the Gate’s wealth
  12. Qatar knew abut Covid-19 since 2015 and Doha paid billions to China to “grow the virus”
  13. Corona virus is being spread by Coca-Cola
  14. US military brought the virus to Wuhan on October 2019
  15. Bill Gates and Vatican have a plan to depopulate world with coronavirus vaccine
  16. Saddam Hussein in 90s told his cabinet that US threatened to spread coronavirus if he didn’t follow US commands
  17. Cuba gave a vaccine to China
  18. Cuba has a vaccine called Interferon
  19. Israel found the cure
  20. China finds a vaccine 3/17
  21. Institut Pasteur in France invented COVID-19
  22. COVID-19 is no worse than other outbreaks, it is just being hyped to hurt Trump
  23. COVID-19 is a scripted narrative to justify closed borders
  24. COVID-19 is a scripted narrative to force people to stay at home
  25. Egypt developed cure (doctor developed a fluid)
  26. Egypt gave China the vaccine
  27. US has 40 thousands troops immune to COVID-19 conducting an invasion of Europe
  28. CDC admits coronavirus originated in the US
  29. Cow urine and feces can cure
  30. COVID-19 was created in 2014 by an English Institute
  31. Ecuadorean doctor develops vaccine 3/3
  32. Filipino student develops vaccine and gets 5million US from Alibaba founder Jack Ma
  33. Raúl Rodolfo Abhduz Khan, biochemical engineer from Karmalah Laboratories, is the creator of coronavirus.

False Diagnostic Procedures

Stories describing false diagnosis procedures:

  1. If you can hold your breath for 10 seconds you don’t have Covid 19

Emergency Measures

Stories describing inaccurate information about emergency measures:

  1. NYC is under martial law 3/20
  2. Only people who have tested positive need to stay home and isolate themselves
  3. Only large gatherings have to be stopped
  4. All human interaction needs to be stopped
  5. Coronavirus is spread only by coughing and sneezing
  6. Social distancing will lead to dramatic immediate results
  7. 1 month of social distancing will stop the epidemic permanently
  8. Friend/relative at Pentagon said the US is going on total lockdown
  9. Friend/relative at White House said the US is going on total lockdown
  10. Russia has unleashed over 500 lions to ensure that people stay inside their homes amid the coronavirus outbreak
  11. In Spain – free internet during 60 days due to quarantine
  12. Polish telecommunications company used quarantine as a cover up to put 100 5G antennas in Gdynia
  13. Riots in London due to unavailability of food leading to lockdown and martial law 3/22
  14. In USA Helicopters are spraying disinfectants to try to eradicate coronavirus
  15. Bangalore Municipal body will be spraying medicine in the air to kill coronavirus
  16. Homeland Security is mobilizing the national guard to combat coronavirus 3/20
  17. Janta curfew in India will break the chain of transmission
  18. Elderly people in Brazil who are caught wandering outside with have their pensions cancelled by the government
  19. People in Spain are committing suicide due to quarantine 3/20
  20. Parks in Adra Spain are being fumigated with poison
  21. Spanish helicopters are spreading medicines against coronavirus
  22. Oman helicopters are spraying pesticides to eliminate coronavirus
  23. Venezuela helicopters are going to spread chemicals against coronavirus
  24. Trump will impose a nationwide mandatory quarantine in 38 to 72 hours 3/16
  25. Military in Philadelphia are preparing to invoke martial law and bring citizens to FEMA camps
  26. Supermarkets are recalling coronavirus-infected toilet paper
  27. Pence urges people with coronavirus to go to police 3/2
  28. Police in China kill covid-19 patients 3/2
  29. Chinese coronavirus patients are being cremated alive 2/25

Good News Stories

Stories relating inaccurate, but funny or feel good stories:

  1. Pandemic caused Venice’s water to be clear so the swans returned
  2. Pandemic caused Venice’s water to be clear so the dolphins returned
  3. Elephants break into a village due to social distancing and get drunk on corn wine

 

 

List of Known Misinformation and Disinformation Regarding Corona Virus in Social Media [pdf]
IDeaS Center and CASOS Center – Under Direction of Dr. Kathleen M. Carley
Last updated 3/23/2020

Stories containing inaccurate information regarding COVID-19 fall into at least three categories:

  • Stories relating inaccurate information about cures or preventative measures or treatments that make it worse
  • Stories relating inaccurate information about the nature of the virus
  • Stories relating inaccurate information that are conspiracy stories
  • Stories relating false diagnosis procedures
  • Stories relating inaccurate information about emergency responses
  • Stories relating inaccurate but funny or feel good stories

We note that there are also stories containing inaccurate information with respect to a) the number of deaths, politicians’ response, and other government activities.  Such stories have not been tracked.

Following is a list of stories of each type.

  1. Stories relating inaccurate information about cures or preventative measures, or things that make it worse
  • gargling with bleach will prevent/cure – also appears as satire
  • drinking corona beer will prevent/cure – also appears as satire
  • taking acetic acid will prevent/cure 
  • taking steroids will prevent/cure 
  • taking colloidal silver will cure
  • taking MMS (which contains chlorine dioxide) can cure
  • using essential oils will prevent 
  • gargling with salt water will prevent/cure 
  • gargling with ethanol will prevent/cure 
  • eating raw garlic will prevent 
  • spraying normal drinking alcohol on body will prevent
  • spraying chlorine on body prevents coronavirus 
  • drinking or washing in sesame oil prevents coronavirus 
  • using a hand dryer will kill corona virus
  • drinking water every 15 minutes will wash virus to the stomach where it will die
  • drinking hot water will kill the virus
  • avoiding eating ice cream will prevent
  • rinsing your nose with saline will prevent
  • having a pneumonia shot will prevent you from getting the disease
  • having a flu shot will prevent you from getting the disease
  • using cocaine prevents/cures
  • Asians are more likely to get COVID-19
  • Wearing more than one mask will help prevent the virus
  • It is dangerous to receive packages from china
  • It is dangerous to eat in a Chinese restaurant (more so than other restaurants)
  • Cold weather and snow can kill off the SARS-CoV-2 virus
  • Warmer weather will kill off the SARS-CoV-2 virus
  • Taking a hot bath prevents COVID-19
  • Hand dryers are effective in killing off the SARS-CoV-2 virus
  • Antibiotics are effective in preventing and treating the SARS-CoV-2 virus
  • Vinegar is more effective than hand sanitizer
  • Hand sanitizer does not work
  • Shuanghuanglian (Chinese medical herb) can prevent
  • drinking cow urine and applying cow dung on the body can cure coronavirus
  • there is no risk to mass public gatherings as the virus is impossible to contract outdoors
  • Miracle Mineral Supplement cures
  • silver-infused toothpaste will kill the virus
  • Kenneth Copeland can cure the virus directly from his tv studio
  • you have to be with someone for 10 minutes to catch the virus from them
  • taking ibuprofen makes COVID-19 worse
  • reading the Quran will make you immune
  • you can kill the virus by holding a blow dryer up to your nose
  1. Stories relating inaccurate information about the nature of the virus
  • Coronavirus is just a cold 
  • COVID-19 is a normal flu
  • Children cannot catch corona virus
  • Sars-cov-2 is mutating faster than normal viruses 
  • Pregnant women who have COVID-19 can pass the virus through the placenta to the unborn child
  • COVID-19 only affects the elderly
  • The SARS-CoV-2 virus can be transmitted through mosquito bite
  • Africans are immune
  • Vegetarians are immune
  • Everyone with COVID-19 dies
  1. Stories relating inaccurate information regarding weaponization or other conspiracies
  • It was created in a lab
  • It is a US/CIA created bioweapon
  • It is a Chinese bioweapon
  • It is a Russian bioweapon
  • It leaked from a bio-weapons lab in China
  • It leaked from the Wuhan Institute of Virology in China
  • It was caused by an infected rat biting a student in the Wuhan Institute of Virology in China
  • Electromagnetic fields and the introduction of 5G and wireless technologies led to COVID-19 outbreaks
  • Washing hands is propaganda by soap companies
  • This was a plan from Gate Foundation to increase it’s wealth
  1. Stories describing false diagnosis procedures
  • If you can hold your breath for 10 seconds you don’t have COVID-19
  1. Stories describing inaccurate information about emergency measures
  • NYC is under martial law
  • Only people who have tested positive need to stay home and isolate themselves
  • Only large gatherings have to be stopped
  • All human interaction needs to be stopped
  • Coronavirus is spread only by coughing and sneezing
  • Social distancing will lead to dramatic immediate results
  • 1 month of social distancing will stop the epidemic permanently
  1. Stories relating inaccurate but funny or feel good stories
  • Pandemic caused Venice’s water to be clear so the swans returned
  • Pandemic caused Venice’s water to be clear so the dolphins returned
  • Elephants break into a village due to social distancing and get drunk on corn wine

List of Known Misinformation and Disinformation Regarding Corona Virus in Social Media [pdf]
IDeaS Center and CASOS Center – Under Direction of Dr. Kathleen M. Carley
updated 3/20/2020

Stories containing inaccurate information regarding COVID-19 fall into at least three categories:

    • Stories relating inaccurate information about cures or preventative measures or treatments that make it worse
    • Stories relating inaccurate information about the nature of the virus
    • Stories relating inaccurate information that are conspiracy stories
    • Stories relating false diagnosis procedures
We note that there are also stories containing inaccurate information with respect to a) the number of deaths, the response effort, and government restrictions.  Such stories have not been tracked. 

Following is a list of stories of each type.

  1. Stories relating inaccurate information about cures or preventative measures, or things that make it worse
    • gargling with bleach will prevent/cure – also appears as satire
    • drinking corona beer will prevent/cure – also appears as satire
    • taking acetic acid will prevent/cure 
    • taking steroids will prevent/cure 
    • taking colloidal silver will cure
    • taking MMS (which contains chlorine dioxide) can cure
    • using essential oils will prevent 
    • gargling with salt water will prevent/cure 
    • gargling with ethanol will prevent/cure 
    • eating raw garlic will prevent 
    • spraying normal drinking alcohol on body will prevent
    • spraying chlorine on body prevents coronavirus 
    • drinking or washing in sesame oil prevents coronavirus 
    • using a hand dryer will kill corona virus
    • drinking water every 15 minutes will wash virus to the stomach where it will die
    • drinking hot water will kill the virus
    • avoiding eating ice cream will prevent
    • rinsing your nose with saline will prevent
    • having a pneumonia shot will prevent you from getting the disease
    • having a flu shot will prevent you from getting the disease
    • using cocaine prevents/cures
    • Asians are more likely to get COVID-19
    • Wearing more than one mask will help prevent the virus
    • It is dangerous to receive packages from china
    • It is dangerous to eat in a Chinese restaurant (more so than other restaurants)
    • Cold weather and snow can kill off the SARS-CoV-2 virus
    • Warmer weather will kill off the SARS-CoV-2 virus
    • Taking a hot bath prevents COVID-19
    • Hand dryers are effective in killing off the SARS-CoV-2 virus
    • Antibiotics are effective in preventing and treating the SARS-CoV-2 virus
    • Vinegar is more effective than hand sanitizer
    • Hand sanitizer does not work
    • Shuanghuanglian (Chinese medical herb) can prevent
    • drinking cow urine and applying cow dung on the body can cure coronavirus
    • there is no risk to mass public gatherings as the virus is impossible to contract outdoors
    • Miracle Mineral Supplement cures
    • silver-infused toothpaste will kill the virus
    • Kenneth Copeland can cure the virus directly from his tv studio
    • you have to be with someone for 10 minutes to catch the virus from them
    • taking ibuprofen makes COVID-19 worse
    • reading the Quran will make you immune
      1. Stories relating inaccurate information about the nature of the virus
      • Coronavirus is just a cold 
      • COVID-19 is a normal flu
      • Children cannot catch coronavirus
      • Sars-cov-2 is mutating faster than normal viruses 
      • Pregnant women who have COVID-19 can pass the virus through the placenta to the unborn child
      • COVID-19 only affects the elderly
      • The SARS-CoV-2 virus can be transmitted through mosquito bite
      • Africans are immune
      • Vegetarians are immune
      • Everyone with COVID-19 dies
      1. Stories relating inaccurate information regarding weaponization or other conspiracies
      • It was created in a lab
      • It is a US/CIA created bioweapon
      • It is a Chinese bioweapon
      • It is a Russian bioweapon
      • It leaked from a bio-weapons lab in China
      • It leaked from the Wuhan Institute of Virology in China
      • It was caused by an infected rat biting a student in the Wuhan Institute of Virology in China
      • Electromagnetic fields and the introduction of 5G and wireless technologies led to COVID-19 outbreaks
      • Washing hands is propaganda by soap companies
      • This was a plan from Gate Foundation to increase it’s wealth
      1. Stories describing false diagnosis procedures
      • If you can hold your breath for 10 seconds you don’t have COVID-19
List of Known Misinformation and Disinformation Regarding Corona Virus in Social Media [pdf]
IDeaS Center and CASOS Center – Under Direction of Dr. Kathleen M. Carley
updated 3/18/2020

Stories containing inaccurate information regarding COVID-19 fall into at least three categories:

  • Stories relating inaccurate information about cures or preventative measures
  • Stories relating inaccurate information about the nature of the virus
  • Stories relating inaccurate information about weaponization and the bio-engineering of COVID-19

We note that there are also stories containing inaccurate information with respect to a) the number of deaths, the response effort and so forth.  Such stories have not been tracked.

Following is a list of stories of each type.

  • Stories relating inaccurate information about cures or preventative measures
  • gargling with bleach will prevent/cure – also appears as satire
  • drinking corona beer will prevent/cure – also appears as satire
  • taking acetic acid will prevent/cure 
  • taking steroids will prevent/cure 
  • taking colloidal silver will cure
  • taking MMS (which contains chlorine dioxide) can cure
  • using essential oils will prevent 
  • gargling with salt water will prevent/cure 
  • gargling with ethanol will prevent/cure 
  • eating raw garlic will prevent 
  • spraying normal drinking alcohol on body will prevent
  • spraying chlorine on body prevents coronavirus 
  • drinking or washing in sesame oil prevents coronavirus 
  • using a hand dryer will kill corona virus
  • drinking water every 15 minutes will wash virus to stomach where it will die
  • drinking hot water will prevent
  • avoiding eating ice cream will prevent
  • rinsing your nose with saline will prevent
  • having a pneumonia shot will prevent
  • having a flu shot will prevent
  • using cocaine prevents/cures
  • Stories relating inaccurate information about the nature of the virus
  • Coronavirus is just a cold 
  • COVID-19 is a normal flu
  • Children cannot catch corona virus
  • Stories relating inaccurate information about weaponization and the bio-engineering of COVID-19
  • It is a US/CIA created bioweapon
  • It is a Chinese bioweapon
  • It is a Russian bioweapon
  • It leaked from a bio-weapons lab in china
  • It was caused by infected rat biting a student in bio-weapons lab in China

Researchers at the IDeaS Center presentations on COVID-19 pandemic.

Simple Simulation Models of Epidemics

Compiled by Kathleen M. Carley with the help of the international SIMSOC team

  The following are very simple simulations that help you understand how epidemics spread, and show the impact of interventions such as hand washing.  These are instructional. There are also much more elaborate and accurate models that are used.  Those more sophisticated models are not listed here. These are in no particular order within category.

  • Simple contagion model in ORA that the user can run on any network of their choice – see http://www.casos.cs.cmu.edu/projects/ora/
  • ABM model: netlogo model already built:
    • Students can run the model after checking clearly written information. One issue is that you cannot run the model online. You first have to download netlogo, https://ccl.northwestern.edu/netlogo/models/epiDEMBasic.
    • AnyLogic SIR models (they have an ABM and SDM comparison that can be thought provoking). They're example models that come with the free student version of the software and there are also cloud versions as well I believe.
    • ABM models: Model Library that comes with NetLogo contains two models of disease spread in the Biology section.  Also, in the Curricular Models section, there are two models that explore different ways of controlling the spread of an epidemic.
    • ABM model: showing impact of hand washing: http://research.criticalconnections.com.au/ABMBook/ but it's pretty buried within the 'teaching NetLogo' material  This model is available from Jen Badham (lists@criticalconnections.com.au).