Explore Strategies-Teaching Excellence & Educational Innovation - Carnegie Mellon University

Step 3: Explore Strategies

Explore potential strategies.

My students don’t come to lecture.

Students have difficulty discerning the goals and/or organization of the lecture.


State your goals.

Clearly articulate the goals of the lecture so that students understand what the desired outcomes are, and use these goals as mileposts to help them recognize the progress of the lecture.

Explicitly share the organization of the lecture.

Don’t assume your students, who are novices in the discipline, will easily make connections among concepts and ideas, or see the logical organization of the material. Because organization is important in helping students to retrieve and use information both now and in the future, providing an outline, agenda or visual representation of the lecture greatly aids students’ learning.

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learning principles

  1. Students’ prior knowledge can help or hinder learning. MORE>
  2. How students organize knowledge influences how they learn and apply what they know. MORE>
  3. Students’ motivation determines, directs, and sustains what they do to learn. MORE>
  4. To develop mastery, students must acquire component skills, practice integrating them, and know when to apply what they have learned. MORE>
  5. Goal-directed practice coupled with targeted feedback enhances the quality of students’ learning. MORE>
  6. Students’ current level of development interacts with the social, emotional, and intellectual climate of the course to impact learning. MORE>
  7. To become self-directed learners, students must learn to monitor and adjust their approaches to learning. MORE>