Carnegie Mellon University

Journal Publications

Downs, J. S., Ashcraft, A. M., Berta, A. M., Chang, J., Coyle, K., Lanyon, M. B., ... & Murray, P. J. (2021). 20. Sexual Minority Female Adolescents are More Likely to Receive Sexually Explicit Messages and Experience Fear from Unwanted Messages Compared to Their Heterosexual Female Peers. Journal of Adolescent Health, 68(2), S11-S12.

Murray, P., Ashcraft, A., Berta, A. M., Chang, J., Coyle, K., Lanyon, M., ... & Downs, J. (2021). 72. Female adolescents who identify as bisexual or other sexuality categories engage in more sexting compared to both heterosexual and lesbian female peers. Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology, 34(2), 268.

Broomell, S. B., Chapman, G. B., & Downs, J. S. (2021). Psychological predictors of prevention behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic. Behavioral Science & Policy.

Bauermeister, J. A., Downs, J. S., & Krakower, D. S. (2020). PrEP Product Acceptability and Dual Process DecisionMaking among Men who have Sex with Men. Current HIV/AIDS Reports, 17(3), 161-170.

Fischl, A., Codner Dujovne, E., Downs, J., Escobar, A., Giraudo Abarca, F., Montgomery, K., ... & Olshansky, E. (2020). Culturally competent approach to adapting a validated diabetes (DM) preconception counseling (PC) intervention to prevent pregnancy-related complications in adolescent and young adult (AYA) females of ethnically diverse populations.

Murray, P. J., Ashcraft, A. M., Berta, A. M., Lanyon, M. B., & Downs, J. (2020). 211. Improving Efficiency and Effectiveness in Training of Community-Based Facilitators for a Behavioral Health Intervention. Journal of Adolescent Health, 66(2), S107.

Leary, M. P., Clegg, E. N., Santella, M. E., Murray, P. J., Downs, J. S., & Olfert, M. D. (2019). Consumption of Health-Related Content on Social Media Among Adolescent Girls: Mixed-Methods Pilot Study. JMIR formative research, 3(1)

Ashcraft, A. M., Downs, J. S., & Murray, P. M. (2019). Adolescent male perspectives on sex and reproductive health, Journal of Adolescent Health, 64(2), S117-S118.

Haliko, S., Downs, J., Mohan, D., Arnold, R., & Barnato, A. E. (2018). Hospital-Based Physicians’ Intubation Decisions and Associated Mental Models when Managing a Critically and Terminally Ill Older Patient. Medical Decision Making, 38(3), 344-354.0272989X17738958.

Patel, S. K., Bunge, K., Downs, J., Hillier, S., & Rohan, L. (2018). Vaginal Film Administration and Placement Study in Women (FLAG Trial). InAIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 34, 182.

Downs, J. S., Ashcraft, A. M., Murray, P. J., Berlan, E. D., Bruine de Bruin, W., Eichner, J., Fischhoff, B., Leary, J. A., McCall, R. B., Miller, E., Salaway, J., Smith-Jones, J., & Sucato, G. S. (2018). Video Intervention to Increase Perceived Self-Efficacy for Condom Use in a Randomized Controlled Trial of Female Adolescents. Journal of Pediatric & Adolescent Gynecology, 31(3), 291-298.

Thurheimer-Cacciotti, J. L., Sereika, S. M., Schmitt, P., Founds, S., Downs, J., Powell, A. B., & Charron-Prochownik, D. C. (2017). The Effect of Risk-Taking Behaviors on Hemoglobin A1c in Women with Type 1 Diabetes. Diabetes, 66, A226.

VanEpps, E. M., Downs, J. S., & Loewenstein, G. (2016). Advance Ordering for Healthier Eating? Field Experiments on the Relationship Between the Meal Order–Consumption Time Delay and Meal Content. Journal of Marketing Research, 53(3), 369-380.

Downs, J. S., Ashcraft, A. M., & Murray, P. J. (2016). Video for Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention: Promises, Challenges, and Future Directions. American Journal of Public Health, 106, S29-S31.

Thurheimer, J., Sereika, S. M., Founds, S., Downs, J., & Charron-Prochownik, D. (2016). Efficacy of the READY-Girls Program on General Risk-Taking Behaviors, Condom Use, and Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Young Adolescent Females With Type 1 Diabetes. The Diabetes Educator, 42(6), 712-720.

VanEpps, E. M., Downs, J. S., & Loewenstein, G. (2016). Calorie Label Formats: Using Numeric and Traffic Light Calorie Labels to Reduce Lunch Calories. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 35(1), 26-36.

Charron-Prochownik, D., Fischl, A. F., Sereika, S. M., Kaitlin Malone, B. S. N., Patricia Schmitt, M. P. M., & Downs, J. (2015). Assessing Reproductive Health Knowledge in Female Adolescents with Diabetes. PLAID-People Living with And Inspired by Diabetes, 1(2).

Downs, J. S., Wisdom, J., & Loewenstein, G. (2015). Helping Consumers Use Nutrition Information: Effects of Format and Presentation. American Journal of Health Economics, 1(3), 326-344.

Downs, J. S., Bruine de Bruin, W., Fischhoff, B., & Murray, P. J. (2015). Behavioral decision research intervention reduces risky sexual behavior. Current HIV Research, 13(5), 439-446.

Persoskie, A. & Downs, J. S. (2015). Experimental Tests of Risk Ladders in the Elicitation of Perceived Likelihood. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making.

Downs, J. S., Ashcraft, A. M., & Murray, P. J. (2015). Can You Get an STI From a Virgin? The Answer Might Surprise You: Intervention Improves Knowledge About Sexual Risk Perceptions. Journal of Adolescent Health, 56, S76-77.

Sucato, G. S., Meghpara, M., Mols, A., Murray, P. J., & Downs, J. (2014). Parental Consent for Adolescent Sexual Health Research: Whom Do We Leave Out?. Journal of Adolescent Health, 54(2), S48.

Downs, J. S. (2014). Prescriptive scientific narratives for communicating usable science. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(Supplement 4), 13627-13633.

Charron-Prochownik, D., Fischl, A. R., Choi, J., Schmitt, P. L., White, N. H., Becker, D., Downs, J., Hannan, M., Thurheimer, J., & Sereika, S. M. (2014). Mother-daughter dyadic approach for starting preconception counseling at puberty in girls withdiabetes. Research Journal of Women's Health, 1(1), 2.

Downs, J. S. (2013). Does "healthy" fast food exist? The gap between perceptions and behavior. Journal of Adolescent Health, 53, 429-554. PMID: 24054077 [PubMed -in process]

Bravo-Lillo, C., Komanduri, S., Cranor, L. F., Reeder, R. W., Sleeper, M., Downs, J., & Schechter, S. (2013). Your attention please: designing security-decision UIs to make genuine risks harder to ignore. In Proceedings of the Ninth Symposium on Usable Privacy and Security (p. 6). ACM.

Charron-Prochownik, D., Sereika, S. M., Becker, D., White, N. H., Schmitt, P., Powell, A. B., Diaz, A. M., Jones, J., Herman, W. H., Fischl, A. F., McEwen, L., DiNardo, M., Guo, F. & Downs, J. (2013). Long-term effects of the booster-enhancedREADY-Girls preconception counseling program on intentions and behaviors for family planning in teens with diabetes. Diabetes Care, 36(12), 3870-3874. PMCID: PMC3836127

Downs, J. S., Wisdom, J., Wansink, B., & Loewenstein, G. (2013). Supplementing Menu Labeling With Calorie Recommendations to Test for Facilitation Effects. American Journal of Public Health. 103(9), 1604-1609.PMID: 23865657 [PubMed -in process]

Farris, C., Akers, A. Y., Downs, J. S., & Forbes, E. E. (2013). Translational research applications for the study of adolescent sexual decision making. Clinical and translational science, 6(1), 78-81. PMCID: PMC3628755

Livingston, J. A., Bay-Cheng, L. Y., Hequembourg, A. L., Testa, M., & Downs, J. S. (2013). Mixed drinks and mixed messages adolescent girls’ perspectives on alcohol and sexuality. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 37(1), 38-50. PMCID: PMC3699882

Bravo-Lillo, C., Cranor, L., Downs, J. S., Komanduri, S., Schechter, S., & Sleeper, M. (2012). Operating system framed in case of mistaken identity: Measuring the success of web-based spoofing attacks on OS password-entry dialogs. Proceedings of the 2012 ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security, 365-377.

Bruine de Bruin, W., Van der Klaauw, W., Topa, G., Downs, J. S., Fischhoff, B., & Armantier, O. (2012). The effect of question wording on consumers' reported inflation expectations. Journal of Economic Psychology, 33, 749-757.

Harle, C. A., Downs, J. S., & Padman, R. (2012). Effectiveness of personalized and interactive health risk calculators: A randomized trial. Medical Decision Making, 32, 594-605. PMID: 22247421

Bravo-Lillo, C., Cranor, L. F., Downs, J. S., Komanduri, S. & Sleeper, M. (2011). Improving computer security dialogs. Human-Computer Interactions –INTERACT, 6949, 18-35.

Barnato, A. E., Mohan, D., Downs, J., Bryce, C. L., Angus, D. C., & Arnold, R. M. (2011). A randomized trial of the effect of patient race on physician ICU and life-sustaining treatment decisions for an acutely unstable elder with end-stage cancer. Critical Care Medicine, 39(7), 1663-1669. PMCID: PMC3119368

Stebbins, S. Downs, J. S. & Vukotich, C. J. (2011). The effect of grade on compliance using nonpharmaceutical interventions to reduce influenza in an urban elementary school setting. Journal of Public Health Management & Practice, 17(1), 65-71. PMID: 19202410

Bravo-Lillo, C., Cranor, L. F., Downs, J., & Komanduri, S. (2011). Bridging the gap in computer security warnings: a mental model approach. Security &Privacy, IEEE, 9(2), 18-26.

Downs, J. S., Bruine de Bruin, W., Arslanian, S., Copeland, V. C., Doswell, W., Herman, W., Lain, K., Mansfield, J., Murray, P. J., White, N., & Charron-Prochownik, D., (2010). Implications of Type 2 Diabetes on reproductive health risk: An expert model. The Diabetes Educator, 36(6), 911-919. PMCID: PMC3462007

Harle, C. A., Downs, J. S., & Padman, R. (2010). A clustering approach to segmenting users of Internet-based risk calculators. Methods of Information in Medicine, 49, 244-252. PMID: 20300681

Sheng, S., Holbrook, M., Kumaraguru, P., Cranor, L., & Downs, J. (2010). Who Falls for Phish? A demographic analysis of phishing susceptibility and effectiveness of interventions. CHI 2010 ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, 373-382.

Bruine de Bruin, W., Vanderklaauw, W., Downs, J. S., Fischhoff, B., Topa, G. & Armantier, O. (2010), Expectations of inflation: The role of demographic variables, expectation formation, and financial literacy. Journal of Consumer Affairs, 44, 381–402.

 Downs, J. S., Holbrook, M. B., Sheng, S., & Cranor L. F. (2010). Are your participants gaming the system? Screening Mechanical Turk workers. CHI 2010 ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, 2399-2402.

Matthews, J. T., Beach, S. R., Downs, J.,Bruine de Bruin, W., Mecca, L. P., & Schulz, R. (2010). Preferences and concerns for quality of life technology among older adults and persons with disabilities: National survey results. Technology and Disability, 22, 5-15.

Wisdom, J., Downs, J. S., & Loewenstein, G. (2010). Promoting healthy choices: Information vs. convenience. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 2(2), 164-178.

Bruine de Bruin, W., Downs, J. S., Murray, P., & Fischhoff, B. (2010). Can female adolescents tell whether they will test positive for chlamydia infection? Medical Decision Making, 30(2), 189-193. PMID: 19706879

Beach, S., Schulz, R., Downs, J. S., Matthews, J., Barron, B., & Seelman, K. (2009). Disability, age, and informational privacy attitudes in quality of life technology applications: Results from a national web survey. Transactions on Accessible Computing, 2, 5:1-21.

Cook, R. L., Downs, J. S., Marrazzo, J. M., Switzer, G. E., Tanriover, O., Wiesenfeld, H. C., Murray, P. J., & Hillier, S. L. (2009). Preferred characteristics of vaginal microbicides in women with bacterial vaginosis. Journal of Women’s Health, 18, 1163-1167. PMCID: PMC2825715

Downs, J. S., Loewenstein, G., & Wisdom, J. (2009). The psychology of food consumption: Strategies for promoting healthier food choices. American Economic Review: Papers and Proceedings, 99(2), 159-164.

Stebbins, S., Downs, J. S., & Vukotich, C. J. (2009).Using non-pharmaceutical interventions to prevent influenza transmission in elementary school children: parent and teacher perspectives. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice, 15(2), 112-117. PMID: 19202410

Harle, C., Padman, R., & Downs, J. (2008). Designing a personalized health risk communication website to motivate user attention and systematic processing. SIGCHI 2008 Proceedings, 26-31.

Downs, J. S., Bruine de Bruin, W. & Fischhoff, B. (2008). Parents’ vaccination comprehension and decisions. Vaccine, 26, 1595-1607. PMID: 18295940

Harle, C., Padman, R., & Downs, J. (2008). The impact of web-based diabetes risk calculators on information processing and risk perceptions. AMIA Annual Symposium Proceedings, 2008, 283-287. PMCID: PMC2656037

Downs, J. S., Holbrook, M. B. & Cranor, L. F. (2007). Behavioral response to phishing risk. ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, 269, 37-44

 Bruine de Bruin, W., Downs, J.S., Fischhoff, B., & Palmgren, C. (2007). Development and evaluation of an HIV/AIDS knowledge measure for adolescents focusing on gaps and misconceptions. Journal of HIV/AIDS Prevention in Children & Youth, 8(1), 35-57.

Schorzman, C. M., Gold, M. A., Downs, J. S. & Murray P. J. (2007). Body art: attitudes and practices regarding bodypiercing among urban undergraduates. Journal of the American Osteopathic Association. 107, 432-438. PMID: 17956995

Downs, J. S., Holbrook, M. B. & Cranor, L. F. (2006). Decision strategies and susceptibility to phishing. ACM International Conference Proceeding Series. 149, 79-90.

Downs, J. S., Bruine de Bruin, W., Murray, P. J., & Fischhoff, B. (2006). Specific STI knowledge may be acquired too late. Journal of Adolescent Health, 38, 65-67. PMID: 16387254

Gold, M. A., Schorzman, C. M., Murray, P. J., Downs, J., & Tolentino, G. (2005). Body piercing practices and attitudes among urban adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health, 36, 352.e17-24. PMID: 15780791

Downs, J. S., Murray, P. J., Bruine de Bruin, W., Penrose, J., Palmgren, C., & Fischhoff, B., (2004).Interactive video behavioral intervention to reduce adolescent females' STD risk: A randomized controlled trial. Social Science & Medicine,59, 1561-72. PMID: 15279915

Fischhoff, B., Bruine de Bruin, W., Perrin, W., & Downs, J. (2004). Travel risks in time of terror: Judgments and choices. Risk Analysis: An International Journal,24, 1301-1309. PMID: 15563296

Downs, J. S., Bruine de Bruin, W., Murray, P. J., & Fischhoff, B. (2004). When “it only takes once” fails: perceived infertility predicts condom use and STI acquisition. Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology, 17(3), 224.

Buzzini, S. R. R., Gold, M. A., Buzzini, T. N. D. Downs, J., & Murray, P. J. (2003), Patterns of pre-admission physical activity among male juvenile detainees. Journal of Adolescent Health, 32, 160

Ness, R.B., Hillier, S.L., Richter. H,E,, Soper, D.E., Stamm, C., Bass, D.C., Sweet, R.L., Rice, P., Downs, J., & Aral, S. (2003). Why women douche and why they may or may not stop. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 30, 71-74. PMID: 12514446

Barth, K.R., Cook, R.L., Downs, J., Switzer, G., & Fischhoff, B. (2002). Social stigma and negative consequences: Factors that influence college students’ decisions to seek testing for sexually transmitted diseases. Journal of American College Health, 50, 153-159. PMID: 11910948

Murray, P. J., Downs, J. S., Fischhoff, B., White, J. P., & McGinnis, M. S. (2001). Contraceptive choice: A behavioral correlate of condom use. Journal of Adolescent Health.

Fischhoff, B., Parker, A., Bruine de Bruin, W., Downs, J., Palmgren, C., Dawes, R.M., & Manski, C. (2000). Teen expectations for significant life events. Public Opinion Quarterly, 64, 189-205. PMID: 10984333

Murray, P.J., Downs, J.S., White, J.P., Fischhoff, B., Barr, S.A., & Palmgren, C. (2000). Previous clinical diagnosis of chlamydia helps patients predict outcome of new chlamydia. Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology, 13(2), 98. PMID: 10869994

Downs, J. S. & Shafir, E. (1999). Why some are perceived as more confident and more insecure, more reckless and more cautious, more trusting and more suspicious, than others: Enriched and impoverished options in social judgment. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 6(4), 598-610. PMID: 10682202

Fischhoff, B., & Downs, J. S. (1998). Communicating foodborne disease risk. Emerging Infectious Disease, 3, 489-495. PMCID: PMC2640085

Cook, R. L., Barth, K., Downs, J. S., & Fischhoff, B. (1998). Barriers to STD screening among asymptomatic youth: A perspective from those at risk. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 13,98.

Fischhoff, B., Downs, J. S., & Bruine de Bruin, W. (1998). Adolescent vulnerability: A framework for behavioral interventions. Applied and Preventive Psychology, 7, 77-94.

Miller, D. T., Downs, J. S., & Prentice, D. A. (1998). Minimal conditions for the creation of a unit relationship: The social bond between birthdaymates. European Journal of Social Psychology, 28, 475-481.

Fischhoff, B., & Downs, J. S. (1997). Accentuate the relevant. Psychological Science, 8(3), 154-158.

Fischhoff, B., & Downs, J. S. (1997). Decision-making theory and HIV disease. Focus, 12(5), 1-4. PMID: 11364327


Downs, J. S., Barbagallo, D., & Acquisti, A. (2015). Predictors of risky decisions: improving judgment and decision making based on evidence from phishing attacks. In V. Reyna & E. Wilhelms (Eds.) Neuroeconomics, Judgment, and Decision Making, in the Frontiers of Cognitive Psychology series by Psychology Press, pp. 239-253.

Downs, J. S. (2014). Video interventions for risk communication and decision making. In J. Arvai & L. Rivers (Eds.) Risk Communication, Taylor & Francis, pp. 23-39.

Downs, J. S. (2011). Evaluation. In B. Fischhoff, N. Brewer, and J. S. Downs (Eds.) Communicating Risks and Benefits: An Evidence-Based User’s Guide, Silver Spring, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services, Food and Drug Administration, pp. 11-18.

Downs, J. S. & Fischhoff, B. (2011). Qualitative risk. In B. Fischhoff, N. Brewer, & J. S. Downs (Eds.) Communicating Risks and Benefits: An Evidence-Based User’s Guide, Silver Spring, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services, Food and Drug Administration, pp. 65-76.

Downs, J. S. & Loewenstein, G. (2011). Behavioral economics and obesity. In J. Cawley (Ed.) Handbook for the Social Science of Obesity, Oxford University Press.

Downs, J. S., Bruine de Bruin, W., Fischhoff, B. & Walker, E. (2011). Public health decision making and risk perception. In: V. Narayan, D. Williams, E. Gregg, & C. Cowie (Eds.) Diabetes Public Health: From Data to Policy, Oxford University Press.

Downs, J. S. & Fischhoff, B. (2009). Theories and models of adolescent decision making. In: R. DiClemente, R. Crosby, & J. Santelli (Eds.) Adolescent Health: Understanding and Preventing Risk, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Downs, J. S., Bruine de Bruin, W., Fischhoff, B., Hesse, B. & Maibach, E. (2008). How people think about cancer: A mental models approach. In O'Hair D (Ed.) Handbook of Risk and Crisis Communication, Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Bruine de Bruin, W., Downs, J.S., & Fischhoff , B. (2007). Adolescents’ thinking about the risks and benefits of sexual behavior. In: Lovett, M. & Shah, P. (Eds.) Thinking with data. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.