Carnegie Mellon University

This instrument measures an extreme orientation toward others. It consists of becoming overly involved in others' problems and self-neglect.

Unmitigated Communion Scale [PDF]

This instrument measures the positive effects of a traumatic or stressful life event.

Benefit Finding Scale [PDF]

Consistent with cognitive adaptation theory, this index measures the three components: mastery, self-esteem, optimism.

Cognitive Adaptation Theory Index [PDF]