Carnegie Mellon University


A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 


AS-IS: in the existing condition without modification.  A seller can disclaim all implied warranties by stating that the good or property is being sold "AS-IS,"or "with all faults,"  or "in its existing condition." The use of the phrase "AS-IS" relieves the seller from liability for defects. (Also see Disclaimer of Warranties).

Back to top


Banquet Event Order: the details of a catered event put into writing.  A banquet event order is sometimes called a BEO.

Breach: violation of a contractual obligation either by failing to perform one's own promise or by interfering with another party's performance.

Back to top


Certificate of Insurance (COI): a form from an insurance agency showing what policies a person/company carries, the dollar amounts the policies can pay out for damages, and the expiration date of the policies.

Choice of Law: the state's or country's laws that apply in a given case.

Consideration: something of value such as an act, a forebearance, or a return promise received in return for work done or to be done.

Back to top


Damages: money claimed by or orderded to be paid to a person as compensation for loss or injury.

Deliverables: the final product or work created by a vendor as issued by a buyer.  Deliverables can be refered to as intellectual property as well.

Direct Damages: damages from the non-performance of a party.

Disclaimer of Warranties: a statement made by a vendor about their product or service in order to limit liability.  Normally, vendors promise to stand behind their product.  However, some vendors choose to disclaim all warranties granted by law.  These warranties include:

  • implied warranty of merchantability (product will perform as stated)
  • fitness for a particular purpose (product will perform the function stated)
  • non-infringement (vendor is not copying someone else's product)
  • title (vendor owns the product)
  • quality of information (product will generate correct data)
  • security (use of the product poses no risk to data)
  • reliability (product will perform)
  • timeliness (product/service will be available)
  • availability of data (data inputted into the program/service will be retrievable)

A vendor can disclaims any of the warranties listed above.  The buyer is then forced to assume any and all risk associated with the use of the product or service. (Also see Implied Warranties and Warranty).

Back to top


General Damages: damages that the law presumes follow from the type of wrong claimed. General damages do not need to be specifically claimed.

Back to top


Honorarium: a gratuitous payment of money to an individual (“Honoree”) for his or her participation in a usual academic activity for which no fee is legally required.  Usual academic activity means lecturing, teaching, readings, performances and sharing knowledge. An honorarium represents a “thank you” gift to a guest speaker or performer who, at no charge to the University, makes a presentation. The University responds with a token payment as a gesture of appreciation.

Back to top


Indemnification (Hold Harmless): an indemnification clause addresses which party will compensate the other for any harm, liability, direct or genernal damages, or loss arising out of the use of a product/service or breach of a contract.  The best example of how an indemnification clause protects the vendor is when the vendor is sued by a third party for selling the product/service.  The buyer is now responsible for any costs or settlements related to that law suit.

Implied Warranties: a statement (warranty) made by the vendor regarding their product or service.  Buyers are entitled to all warranties unless vendor disclaims one and/or all of them.  (See Disclaimer of Warranties and Warranty).

Back to top


Limitation of Damages: similar to a disclaimer of warranties, a limitation of damages clause restricts the amount of compensation to be collected from direct damages only.  Compensation is usually limited to the cost actually paid by the buyer for the product or service.

Limitation of Liability: a clause that restructs the amount a buyer can collect from the vendor for damages.  Again, compensation is usually limited to the cost actually paid by the buyer for the product or service.  A limitation of liability clause places all risk on the buyer.  The most common place to find a limitation of liability clause is in cloud service agreements.  The service may be very inexpensive, but the potential risk of losing the sensitive or unique data stored in the cloud can be exponential.

Back to top


Master Services Agreement: suppliers to the university where only the Terms and Conditions have been agreed upon.  Master Services Agreements are generated through the University Contracts Office (UCO) based on requests made for the supplier by more than one department on campus or for repeated requests by one department.  An additional scope of work may need to be executed through the UCO, depending on the services to be performed.

Back to top


Preferred Supplier: suppliers to the university where the university has worked out both the Pricing and the Terms and Conditions.  Preferred suppliers are established though the RFP (Request for Proposal) process implemented by Procurement Services.  An additional scope of work may need to be executed through the UCO, depending on the services to be performed.

Performance: successful completion of a service.

Professional Services Agreement: a contract for a specific service. Usually, the service is a one-time only deal.

Back to top


Special Damages: damges claimed and/or awarded in a lawsuit which were out-of-pocket costs directly as the result of the breach of contract, negligence, or other wrongful act by one of the parties.  Special damages can include medical bills, repairs, and replacement of property, loss of wages, and other damages which are not speculative or subjective.  They are distinguished from general damages in which there is no evidence of a specific dollar figure.

Statement of Work: the details of service put into writing.  The services provided in the statement of work are usually governed by a master services agreement. (Also see Work Order).

Back to top


Warranty: an express or implied statement that the product or service is guaranteed by the vendor. (Also see Disclaimer of Warranties and Implied Warranties).

Work Order: the details of service put into writing.  The services provided in the work order are usually governed by a master services agreement.  (Also see Statement of Work).

Back to top