Friday, October 17, 2003
Mellon College of Science at Carnegie Mellon Offers Interdisciplinary Science Course for First-year Students
PITTSBURGH—The Mellon College of Science (MCS) at Carnegie Mellon University now offers an unusual course for first-year students. Dubbed EUREKA: An Interdisciplinary Laboratory Experience, the course combines biological sciences, physics, chemistry and mathematical sciences.
“We think that EUREKA-like courses are relatively rare nationwide because most undergraduates do not conduct laboratory work in all four disciplines in their first year. By highlighting the interdisciplinary aspect of today’s scientific world, the course prepares students for the complex challenges they will face as scientists,” said Eric Grotzinger, associate dean of MCS undergraduate affairs and one of the developers of the course. “EUREKA challenges students to understand and solve problems through creative thinking rather than textbook learning,” he added.
Didi Garrity, a EUREKA student interested in pursuing a career in biology, said that learning how different scientific disciplines intersect and complement one another is vital. “The bar is constantly being raised. You have to know what’s going on in multiple scientific fields to be a successful scientist today.”
The course, limited to 20 students to allow for greater interaction between MCS faculty instructors and students, is offered only to first-year MCS and Science and Humanities Scholars (SHS) students.
EUREKA consists of two components: lecture and laboratory work. Each week, a guest speaker delivers a lecture that highlights issues in interdisciplinary science. The first speaker, Carnegie Mellon President Jared Cohon, spoke on water quality problems arising from combined sewer overflows in Western Pennsylvania. He addressed the complexity of this situation and the interdisciplinary approaches required to solve it. In another guest lecture, Gordon Rule, associate professor of biological sciences, illustrated how scientists use physics, mathematics, biology and chemistry to explain the activity of green fluorescent protein (GFP), an essential component of modern cell biology research and the substance that makes some jellyfish fluoresce.
In the laboratory, students are divided into three groups working on three separate research problems. One research group is isolating bacterial DNA from a variety of soil samples and amplifying two regions of the genome by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to study biological diversity. DNA isolation and PCR are used in areas such as forensic criminal investigation and biomedical research. A second research group is comparing the way light affects different dyes to explore how light can be used to gather structural and quantitative information about molecules. Capturing this information is crucial in developing substances such as new drugs and industrial polymers. A third group is exploring the conversion of light into heat or motion, the manner in which light affects the growth of some plants, and the human eye’s response to light. Such work is vital in developing new energy technologies—solar panels, for example— and in understanding how living things interact with light. Students rotate into different research groups over the course of the semester, allowing them to work on two of the three projects. The experiments chosen for the three research groups illustrate how similar investigative techniques can be used across scientific disciplines.
In all three groups, students formulate their own research questions and devise their own strategies for arriving at answers, an unusual approach for a first-year course. A goal of the course is to heighten the students’ scientific curiosity and to teach them to think like independent investigators and scientists, according to Stephen Garoff, a EUREKA instructor and professor of physics.
EUREKA culminates in students using forensic techniques culled from their lab experience to solve the hypothetical murders of two professors in a fictitious Carnegie Mellon department. The forensic segment was written by Russell Walker, teaching professor of mathematical sciences. In this exercise, students will analyze tire tracks, paint, fingerprints, gun shot residue and DNA evidence to solve the crime. At the end of the semester, students will hold a mock trial to present the evidence they have gathered.
To enroll in the fall 2003 course, prospective students wrote a short essay on why taking an interdisciplinary approach to science is important to them. From the submissions, the instructors of EUREKA—who represent the MCS Physics, Biological Sciences, Mathematical Sciences and Chemistry departments—handpicked the students who take part in the course.
Grotzinger hopes to extend the course to more students. “Right now, we’re using this semester’s course as a trial to see how it works and try out some ideas. Eventually, we’d like to increase the enrollment so that a greater number of first-year MCS and SHS students can take it.”
For more information on the Mellon College of Science, visit the MCS Web site at www.cmu.edu/mcs/.
By: Lauren Ward