Laboratory Facilities

Multiscale Manufacturing and Dynamics Laboratory facilities are located on room C-124 of Hamerschlag Hall at Carnegie Mellon University. The MMDL lab members also have access to other state-of-the-art equipment within the CMU campus. An overview of some of the laboratory equipment is provided below. Please contact Professor Burak Ozdoganlar for further information on laboratory equipment and usage.

Equipment in MMDL @ CMU

Fully Instrumented Three-axis Miniature Machine Tool Testbed

3-Axis MMT Testbed in MMDL @ Carnegie Mellon University
This 3-axis MMT is designed and constructed in MMDL. The MMT has 3-axis precision slides with 10 nm resolution and 25 x 50 x 50 mm workspace with better than 1 mm accuracy. A 160,000 rpm air-bearing/air-turbine spindle is used to rotate the microtools. A Kistler force dynamometer (9256C2) is used to measure micromachining forces. An infra-red speed sensor is used to measure the spindle-speed, which is controlled through a LabView code using a solenoid valve control system. A stereo microsope is used to view the process.

Five-axis Miniature Machine Tool Testbed

5-Axis TMMT Testbed in MMDL @ Carnegie Mellon University
The five-axis MMT testbed was designed and constructed in MMDL. It includes a 200,000 rpm air-bearing spindle electrically driven spindle with 500W power. The five axes slides are provided by ALIO industrieas, and includes two linear axis and a tripod, providing a 100 mm x 100 mm x 100 mm workspace with ±25 deg. motion capability in each of the A and B axes. A granite frame and base supports the system, and the system is placed on vibration isolating legs. A Delta-Tau controller and a custom software are used to control the slide motions.

Precision Diamond/Ceramic Polishing/Lapping/Grinding Testbed

This two-stage diamond/ceramic polishing/lapping/grinding system is designed and constructed in MMDL. Rough polishing/grinding is conducted by a 3000 rpm spindle using a bonded grinding wheel. The slides can move with 10 nm resolution, and specifically designed to retain their accuracy (better than 1 µm) in the presence of large forces that are experienced during grinding/polishing processes. The system then rotates on a rotational axis, and the fine polishing is conducted on an ultra-high-speed spindle (160,000 rpm) using a polishing mandrel. The system is fully automated, and forces and acoustic emissions can be measured during the processes.

Orthogonal Micromachining Testbed

Planing Testbed in MMDL @ Carnegie Mellon University
Precision Plunge-Turning Testbed in MMDL @ Carnegie Mellon University

This testbed consists of a planing microtome with 1 mm accuracy, and a precision turning setup that enables plunge-turning experiments. Each setup enables use of a high-speed camera with 583X tube microscope to view the material removal process in detail. Forces can be measured during each process. This testbed is utilized for phenomenological understanding of micro-scale material removal processes. The planing setup supports speeds up to 100 mm/s. The precision turning testbed can reach rotational speeds up to 3000 rpm.

Nanomilling and Atomic Force Microsopy Testbed

This testbed is designed and constructed in MMDL. The nanomilling/AFM in-plane motions are obtained using the PI nanocube actuator within 100 mm range with 1.5 nm resolution. AFM measurements can be conducted via standard laser-deflection method, or using piezoresistive AFM beams. The nanotool motions are controlled using LabView programming. An LDV based contact method is used to detect the surface contact.

UHS Spindle Error and Dynamics Testbed

Three Dimensional Metrology Testbed in MMDL @ Carnegie Mellon University
This testbed enables the measurement of tool-tip runout and spindle errors for ultra-high-speed (UHS) spindles. Four laser beams (LDV) measures the motions from a precision artifact. The spindles at different speed, collet torque, etc., can be characterized. A specially-designed Donaldson reversal setup enables separating artifact errors and inherent spindle errors. For spindle error measurements, the measurement bandwidth is up to 20 MHz, and resolution is 0.6 nm. For dynamic measurements, a miniature hammer setup is used to apply impact forces within 15 kHz bandwidth in a repeatable fashion. A 3-axis mutually-orthogonal measurement setup is obtained using precision kinematic mounts and an alignment procedure.

MVA-400 Micro-Scanning Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) System

LDV Testbed in MMDL @ Carnegie Mellon University
The MSA-400 integrates Laser-Doppler Vibrometry (LDV) for the fast broadband out-of-plane vibrational characterization and Stroboscopic Video Microscopy for the in-plane examination of MEMS devices in one compact, robust and reliable all-in-one measurement head. The highly sensitive Laser-Doppler technique is used to find all mechanical resonances rapidly without a-priori information about the device using wide-band excitation (a pure machine vision system can only measure at user-defined, discrete frequency points with single-frequency excitation). In a second step the stroboscopic video microscopy technique is used to obtain accurate amplitude and phase information of the resonances found with the Vibrometer technique. The system (1) Scans surfaces for multi-point measurements, (2) Displays frequency and time domain data, (3) obtains sub-micron spot size for measurement of micro-systems (e.g., 0.7 µm spot size for 50X lens). The system characteristics include:

Out-of-plane motion:
- FFT spectrum within milliseconds
- 0 Hz to 20 MHz measurement range
- Analysis of transient processes
- Picometer resolution
- Resolution magnification independent 

In-plane motion:
- 0.001 Hz to 2 MHz
- Various analysis modes like Bode plots and displacement-over-time plots
- Standard export formats for measurement data, graphics and animations

Equipment in the Surface Metrology Laboratory (SML) at Carnegie Mellon University

Lab Co-Directors: Professor Ozdoganlar and Professor Higgs

The Surface Metology Laboratory @ CMU houses state-of-the-art surface metrology equipment. The equipment in SML is fee-based and open to both CMU and external communities.

Zygo NewView 7300 Optical Profilometer

Optical Profilometry in SML @ Carnegie Mellon University
The NewView™ 7300 white light interferometers is for characterizing and quantifying surface roughness, step heights, critical dimensions, and other topographical features with excellent precision and accuracy. All measurements are nondestructive, fast, and require no sample preparation. Profile heights ranging from < 1 nm up to 20000 µm at high speeds, independent of surface texture, magnification, or feature height. Using ZYGO's patented scanning white light interferometry (SWLI) technology, the NewView™ 7000 series 3D optical surface profilers easily measure a wide range of surfaces, including smooth, rough, flat, sloped, and stepped surfaces.

Park XE-70 Atomic Force Microscope

AFM in SML @ Carnegie Mellon University
The XE-70 incorporates a flexure-based decoupled x-y-z motion stage with 100 micrometer measurement range. The flexure scanner is highly accurate with an out-of-plane movement 2 nm over the 100 micrometer scan range. The AFM can be operated in an environmental chamber. The operation modes include the following:
Standard Imaging
• Basic Contact AFM and DFM
• Lateral Force Microscopy (LFM)
• Phase Imaging
• True Non-Contact AFM
Chemical Properties
• Chemical Force Microscopy with Functionalized Tip
• Electrochemical Microscopy (EC-STM and EC-AFM)
Dielectric/Piezoelectric Properties
• Electric Force Microscopy (EFM)
• Dynamic Contact EFM (DC-EFM)
• Piezoelectric Force Microscopy (PFM)
• PFM with High Voltage
Electrical Properties
• Conductive AFM (UltraLow Current and Variable Current)
• Scanning Capacitance Microscopy (SCM)
In-liquid Imaging
• Ion Conductance Microscopy (ICM)
Magnetic Properties
• Magnetic Force Microscopy (MFM)
• Tunable MFM
Mechanical Properties
• Force Modulation Microscopy (FMM); Nanoindentation; Nanomanupulation