Carnegie Mellon University

Green Design Institute Publications

Over the past 25 years, researchers at the Green Design Institute have published hundreds of articles. Seminal work from the GDI includes:

Lave, L. B.; Hendrickson, C. T.; McMichael, F. C. Environmental Implications of Electric Cars. Science. 1995, 268 (5213), 993–995.

Horvath, A.; Hendrickson, C. T.; Lave, L. B.; McMichael, F. C.; Wu, T.-S. Toxic emissions indices for green design and inventory. Environmental Science and Technology. 1995, 29 (2), 86A–90A.

Hendrickson, C. T., Horvath, A., et al. Economic Input-Output Models for Environmental Life-Cycle Assessment. Environmental Science and Technology. 1998, 4: 184A-191A.

Lave, L. B.; MacLean, H. L. Are hybrid vehicles worth it? IEEE Spectrum. 2001, 38 (3), 47–50.

Jaramillo, P.; Matthews, H. S.; Griffin, W. M. Comparative life-cycle air emissions of coal, domestic natural gas, LNG, and SNG for electricity generation. Environmental Science and Technology. 2007, 41 (17), 6290–6296.

Weber, C. L.; Matthews, H. S. Food-Miles and the Relative Climate Impacts of Food Choices in the United States. Environmental Science and Technology. 2008, pp 3508–3513.

Michalek, J. J.; Chester, M.; Jaramillo, P.; Samaras, C.; Shiau, C.-S. N.; Lave, L. B. Valuation of plug-in vehicle life-cycle air emissions and oil displacement benefits. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2011, 108 (40), 16554–16558.

Mullins, K. A.; Griffin, W. M.; Matthews, H. S. Policy Implications of Uncertainty in Modeled Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Biofuels. Environmental Science and Technology 2011, 45 (1), 132–138.

In addition, researchers at the Green Design Institute have published two books about life cycle assessment including:

  • Hendrickson, C. T., Lave, L. B., Matthews, H. S.  Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of Goods and Services:  An Input-Output Approach.  Resources for the Future Press. 2006. Available online at

  • Matthews, H. S.; Hendrickson, C. T., Matthews, D.H. Life Cycle Assessment: Quantitative Approaches for Decisions That Matter. Self-published. 2015. Available for free at