Carnegie Mellon University

Inês Azevedo

Inês Azevedo

Professor, Engineering and Public Policy
Co-Director, Center for Climate and Energy Decision Making

Department of Engineering and Public Policy
Carnegie Mellon University
5000 Forbes Avenue
Pittsburgh, PA 15213


  • Professor, Carnegie Mellon University 2017-present
  • Associate Professor, Carnegie Mellon University 2014-2016
  • Assistant Professor, Carnegie Mellon University 2013
  • Assistant Research Professor, Carnegie Mellon University 2010-2013


  • PhD in Engineering and Public Policy, CMU
  • M.Sc. in Engineering Policy and Management of Technology, IST, Portugal
  • B.Sc & M.Sc. (5-year degree) in Environmental Engineering, IST, Portugal


Dr. Azevedo’s research interests lie at the intersection of environmental, technical, and economic issues, such as how to address the challenge of climate change and to move towards a more sustainable energy system. She tackles complex problems in which traditional engineering plays an important role but cannot provide a complete answer. In particular, she has been looking at how energy systems are likely to be shaped in the future, which requires comprehensive knowledge not only of the technologies that can address future energy needs but also of the decision-making process followed by different agents in the economy. Dr. Azevedo has also been working on assessing how specific policies will shape future energy systems, especially in a carbon-constrained world.

Research Interests

Energy and Climate Policy

Recent Publications

Glasgo, B., Hendrickson, C. Azevedo, I.L., (2017). Assessing the value of information in residential building simulation: Comparing simulated and actual building loads at the circuit level, accepted in Applied Energy.

Lam, L., Branstetter, L., Azevedo. I.L., (2017). Not all patents are created equal: wind innovation in China, Energy Policy, 106, 588–599.

Sakti, A., Azevedo, I.L., Fuchs, E.R.H., Michalek, J.J., Gallagher, K., Whitacre, J.F., (2017). Consistency and robustness of forecasting and the need for technological detail: The case of Li-ion batteries for electric vehicles, Energy Policy, 106, 415–426.

Glasgo, B., Hendrickson, C., Azevedo, I.L., (2017). Using advanced metering infrastructure to characterize residential energy use, The Electricity Journal, 30 (3), 64–70.

Welle, P., Azevedo, I.L., Doney, S., Small, M., (2017). Estimating the effect of multiple environmental stressors on coral bleaching and mortality, PlosOne, 2(5): e0175018.

Gingerich, D., Sun, X., Behrer, P., Azevedo, I.L., Mauter, M., (2017). Air emissions implications of expanded wastewater treatment at coal-fired generators. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1524396114.

Markolf, S., Matthews, H.S., Azevedo, I.L., Hendrickson, C.T., (2017). An integrated approach for estimating greenhouse gas emissions from 100 US metropolitan areas, Environmental Research Letters, 12, 024003.

Peña, I., Azevedo, I.L., Ferreira, L.M., Was it worth it? (2017). A review of Portuguese wind policies and technology diffusion. Energy Policy, 103, 193–202.

Horner, N., Shehabi, A., Azevedo, I.L. (2016). Known unknowns: indirect energy effects of information and communication technology. Environmental Research Letters, 11,10.

Lam, L., Branstetter, L., Azevedo, I.L., (2016). China’s wind electricity and cost of carbon mitigation are more expensive than anticipated. Environmental Research Letters, 11, 8.

Glasgo, B., Azevedo, I.L., Hendrickson, C., (2016). How much electricity can we save by using direct current circuits in homes? Understanding the potential for electricity savings and assessing feasibility of a transition towards DC powered buildings. Applied Energy, 180, 66–75.

Lamy, J., Jaramillo, P., Azevedo, I.L., Wiser, R., (2016). Should we build wind farms close to load or invest in transmission to access better wind resources in remote areas? A case study in the MISO region. Energy Policy, 96, 341–350. [PDF]

Horner, N., Azevedo, I.L., (2016). Power usage effectiveness in data centers: overloaded and underachieving. The Electricity Journal, 29, 61-69. [PDF]

Yuksel, T., Tamayao, M-A., Hendrickson, C., Azevedo, I.L., Michalek, J., (2016). Effect of regional grid mix, driving patterns and climate on the comparative carbon footprint of gasoline and plug-in electric vehicles in the United States. Environmental Research Letters, 11, 044007. [PDF]

Jenn, A., Azevedo, I.L., Michalek, J., (2016). Alternative fuel vehicle adoption increases fleet gasoline consumption and greenhouse gas emissions under United States corporate average fuel economy policy and greenhouse gas emissions standards. Environmental Science & Technology 50.5, 2165-2174. [PDF]

Haaf, C.G., Morrow, W.R., Azevedo, I.L., Feit, E., Michalek, J.J., (2016). Forecasting light-duty vehicle demand using alternative-specific constants for endogeneity correction versus calibration. Transportation Research Part B, 84, 182–210. [PDF]

Faria, F., Klima, K., Posen, I.D., Azevedo, I.L., (2015). A new approach of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics outreach in climate change, energy and environmental decision making. Sustainability: The Journal of Record, 8(5): 261-271. [PDF]

Tong, F., Azevedo, I.L., Jaramillo, P., (2015). A Comparison of life cycle greenhouse gases from natural gas pathways for light-duty vehicles. Energy and Fuels, 29 (9), 6008–6018. [PDF]

Gillingham, K., Jenn, A., Azevedo, I.L., (2015). Heterogeneity in the response to gasoline prices: evidence from Pennsylvania and implications for the rebound effect. Energy Economics, 52 (1). 

Rubin, E., Azevedo, I.L., Yeh, S., Jaramillo, P., (2015). How to improve modeling approaches to represent the future costs of energy technologies? Reviewing the findings from learning curves from energy technologies. Energy Policy, 86, 198–218.[PDF]

Tong, F., Azevedo, I.L., Jaramillo, P., (2015). A Comparison of life cycle greenhouse gases from natural gas pathways for medium and heavy-duty vehicles. Environmental Science & Technology, 49, 7123−7133. [PDF]

Tamayao, M., Michalek, J., Hendrickson, C., Azevedo I.L., (2015). Regional variability and uncertainty of electric vehicle life cycle CO2 emissions across the United States. Environmental Science & Technology, 49 (14), 8844–8855. [PDF]

Jenn, A., Azevedo, I.L., Fischbeck, P., (2015). How do we fund our roads? A case of decreasing revenue from electric vehicles. Journal of Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 74, 136–147. [PDF]

Hittinger, E., Azevedo, I.L., (2015). Bulk energy storage increases US electricity system emissions. Environmental Science & Technology, 49 (5), 3203-3210. [PDF]

Posen, I.D., Griffin, W.M., Matthews, H.S., Azevedo, I.L., (2015). Changing the renewable fuel standard to a renewable material standard: bio-ethylene case study. Environmental Science & Technology, 49 (1), 93–102. [PDF]

Prasad, S., Abdulla, A., Morgan, M.G.M., Azevedo, I.L., (2015). Nonproliferation improvements and challenges presented by small modular reactors. Progress in Nuclear Energy, 80, 102-109. [PDF]

Min, J., Azevedo, I.L., Hakkarainen, P., (2015). Net carbon emissions savings and energy reductions from lighting energy efficiency measures when accounting for changes in heating and cooling demands: a regional comparison. Applied Energy, 141 (1), 12–18. [PDF]