Carnegie Mellon University

Jay Apt

Jay Apt


Carnegie Mellon University
5000 Forbes Avenue
Pittsburgh, PA 15213


  • Professor Emeritus, Tepper School of Business and Department of Engineering & Public Policy, 2022- Present
  • Professor, Tepper School of Business, Co-Director, Carnegie Mellon Electricity Industry Center, Carnegie Mellon University, 2010-2022
  • Affiliated Professor in Engineering & Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University, 2010-2022
  • Distinguished Service Professor in Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University, 2000-2010
  • Managing Director and Chief Technology Officer, iNetworks, LLC Venture Capital , 2000-2003
  • Director, Carnegie Museum of Natural History, 1997-2000
  • Astronaut (Four Space Shuttle missions. Two missions involved partnerships with Japan and Russia; one involved two spacewalks), National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 1985-1997
  • Chief of Mission Support Branch, 1995-1996
  • Flight Controller, Mission Control center, 1982-1985
  • Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, Science Manager of Optical Facilities, Table Mountain Observatory, Group Leader, Optical Astronomy Group, Planetary scientist in Earth and Space Sciences Division, California Institute of Technology, 1980-1982
  • Assistant Director, Division of Applied Sciences, Founding Director, Planetary Imaging computer center, Harvard University, 1978-1980
  • Staff, Center for Earth and Planetary Physics, 1976-1980
  • Post-doctoral fellow in laser spectroscopy, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1976


  • Ph.D in Experimental Atomic Physics, Massachusets Institute of Technology, 1976
  • A.B. in Physics(Magna Cum Laude), Harvard, 1971


121. Lavi, Y. and J. Apt, Using PV Inverters for Voltage Support at Night Can Lower Grid Costs. Energy Reports, 2022. 8: 6347-6354.

120. Smillie, S., N.Z. Muller, W.M. Griffin, and J. Apt, Greenhouse gas estimates of LNG exports must include global market effects. Environmental Science & Technology, 2022. 56: 1194-1201.

119. Lavin, L. and J. Apt,  The importance of peak pricing in realizing system benefits from distributed storage. Energy Policy, 2021. 157: 112484.

118. Freeman, G.M., J. Apt, S. Blumsack, and T. Coleman, Could on-site fuel storage economically reduce power plant – gas grid dependence in New England?. The Electricity Journal, 2021. 34: 106956.

117. Lavin, L., S. Murphy, B. Sergi, and J. Apt, Dynamic Operating Reserve Procurement Improves Scarcity Pricing in PJM. Energy Policy, 2020. 147: 111857.

116. Freeman, G., J. Apt, and J. Moura, What causes natural gas fuel shortages at U.S. power plants? Energy Policy, 2020. 147: 111805.

115. Kirchen, K., W. Harbert, J. Apt, and M.G. Morgan, A Solar-Centric Approach to Improving Estimates of Exposure Processes for Coronal Mass Ejections. Risk Analysis, 2020. 40(5): 1020-1039.

114. Murphy, S., L. Lavin, and J. Apt, Resource adequacy implications of temperature-dependent electric generator availability. Applied Energy, 2020. 262: 114424

113. Keen, J.F. and J. Apt, How much capacity deferral value can targeted solar deployment create in Pennsylvania? Energy Policy, 2019. 134: 110902.

112. Murphy, S, F. Sowell, and J. Apt, A time-dependent model of generator failures and recoveries captures correlated events and quantifies temperature dependence. Applied Energy, 2019. 253: 113513.

111. Fisher, M., J. Apt, and J. Whitacre, Can flow batteries scale in the behind-the-meter commercial and industrial market? A techno-economic comparison of storage technologies in California. Journal of Power Sources, 2019. 420: 1-8.

110. Klima, K., J. Apt, M. Bandi, P. Happy, C. Loutan, and R. Young, Geographic smoothing of solar photovoltaic electric power production in the western USA. Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy, 2018. 10(5): 053504.

109. Freeman, G, J. Apt, and M. Dworkin, The Natural Gas Grid Needs Better Monitoring. Issues in Science and Technology, 2018. 34(4): 79-84.

108. Fisher, M., J. Whitacre, and J. Apt, A Simple Metric for Predicting Revenue from Electric Peak-Shaving and Optimal Battery Sizing. Energy Technology, 2018. 6(4): 649-657.

107. Murphy, S., J. Apt, J. Moura, and F. Sowell, Resource adequacy risks to the bulk power system in North America. Applied Energy, 2018. 212: 1360-1376.

106. Fisher, M.J., F. Sowell, and J. Apt, The economics of commercial demand response for spinning reserve. Energy Systems, 2018.9(1): 3-23.

105. Kaack, L.H., J. Apt, M.G. Morgan, and P. McSharry, Empirical Prediction Intervals Improve Energy Forecasting. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2017. 114(33): 8752-8757.

104. Apt, J., Forum: Climate Engineering. Issues in Science and Technology, 2017. 33(4): 5-8.

103. Clack, C. T. M., S.A. Qvist, J. Apt, M. Bazilian, A,R. Brandt, K. Caldeira, S.J. Davis, V. Diakov, M.A. Handschy, P.D. H. Hines, P. Jaramillo, D.M. Kammen, J.C.S. Long, M.G. Morgan, A. Reed, V. Sivaram, J. Sweeney, G.R. Tynan, D.G. Victor, J.P. Weyant, and J.F. Whitacre, Evaluation of a proposal for reliable low-cost grid power with 100% wind, water, and solar. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2017. 114(26): 6722-6727.

102. Fisher, M.J. and J. Apt, Emissions and Economics of Behind-the Meter Electricity Storage. Environmental Science & Technology, 2017. 51(3): 1094-1101.

101. Handschy, M.A., S. Rose and J. Apt, Is It Always Windy Somewhere? Occurrence of Low-Wind-Power Events over Large Areas. Renewable Energy, 2017. 101: 1124-1130.

100. Bandi, M. and J. Apt, Variability of the wind turbine power curve. Applied Sciences, 2016. 6: 262.

99. Keen, J.F. and J. Apt, Are high penetrations of commercial cogeneration good for society? Environmental Research Letters, 2016. 11: 124014.

98. Rose, S. and J. Apt, Quantifying Sources of Uncertainty in Reanalysis Derived Wind Speed. Renewable Energy, 2016. 94: 157-165.

97. Lueken, R., K. Klima, W.M. Griffin, and J. Apt, The Climate and Health Effects of a USA Switch from Coal to Gas Electricity Generation. Energy, 2016. 109: 1160-1166.

96. Lueken, R., J. Apt and F. Sowell, Robust Resource Adequacy Planning in the Face of Coal Retirements. Energy Policy, 2016. 88: 371-388.

95. Rose, S. and J. Apt, What Can Reanalysis Data Tell Us About Wind Power? Renewable Energy, 2015. 83: 963-969.

94. Klima, K. and J. Apt, Geographic Smoothing of Solar PV: Results from Gujarat. Environmental Research Letters, 2015. 10: 104001.

93. Apt., J., Recent results on the integration of renewable electric power into the US grid. MRS Energy & Sustainability - A Review Journal. 2015. 2: E6 doi: DOI: 10.1557/mre.2015.7.

92. Dowds, J., P. Hines, T. Ryan, W. Buchanan, E. Kirby, J. Apt, and P. Jaramillo, A Review of Large-Scale Wind Integration Studies. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2015. 49: 768-794.

91. Moore, J., K. Borgert and J. Apt, Could Low Carbon Capacity Standards Be More Cost Effective at Reducing CO2 than Renewable Portfolio Standards? Energy Procedia, 2014. 63: 7459-7470.

90. Moore, J. and J. Apt, Consumer Cost Effectiveness of CO2 Mitigation Policies in Restructured Electricity Markets. Environmental Research Letters, 2014. 9: 104019.

89. Lueken, R. and J. Apt. The Effects of Bulk Electricity Storage on the PJM Market. Energy Systems, 2014. 5(4): 677-704.

88. Hittinger, E., J. Apt, and J. Whitacre, The Effect of Variability-Mitigating Market Rules on the Operation of Wind Farms. Energy Systems, 2014. 5(4): 737-766.

87. Fertig, E., A.M. Heggedal, G. Doorman, and J. Apt, Optimal investment timing and capacity choice for pumped hydropower storage. Energy Systems, 2014. 5(2): 285-306.

86. Rose, S. and J. Apt, The Cost of Curtailing Wind Turbines for Secondary Frequency Regulation Capacity. Energy Systems, 2014. 5(3): 407-422.

85. Rose, S., P. Jaramillo, M. Small, and J. Apt, Quantifying the Hurricane Catastrophic Risk to Offshore Wind Power. Risk Analysis, 2013. 33(12): 2126-2141.

84. Mauch, B., J. Apt, P.M.S. Carvalho and M. Small, An Effective Method for Modeling Wind Power Forecast Uncertainty. Energy Systems, 2013. 4(4): 393-417.

83. Siler-Evans, K., I.L. Azevedo, M.G. Morgan, and J. Apt, Regional Variations in the Health, Environmental, and Climate Benefits of Wind and Solar Generation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2013. 110(29): 11768-11773.

82. Hoşgör, E., J. Apt, and B. Fischhoff,  Incorporating Seismic Concerns in Site Selection for Enhanced Geothermal Power Generation. The Journal of Risk Research, 2013. 16(8): 1021-1036.

81. Apt, J. and N. Secomandi, Preface to the Special Issue on Energy Modeling. Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, 2013. 47(2): 75.

80. Mauch, B., J. Apt, P.M.S. Carvalho and P. Jaramillo, What Day-Ahead Reserves are Needed in Electric Grids with High Levels of Wind Power?. Environmental Research Letters, 2013. 8: 034013.

79. Victor, D.G., M.G. Morgan, J. Apt, J. Steinbruner, and K. Ricke, The Truth about  Geoengineering. Foreign Affairs, March 27, 2013.

78. Moore, J. and J. Apt, Can Hybrid Solar-Fossil Power Plants mitigate CO2 at Lower Cost than PV or CSP? Environmental Science & Technology, 2013. 47(6): 2487-2493.

77. Katzenstein, W. and J. Apt, The Cost of Wind Power Variability. Energy Policy, 2012. 51: 233-243.

76. Lueken, C., P.M.S. Carvalho, and J. Apt, Distribution grid reconfiguration reduces power losses and helps integrate renewables. Energy Policy, 2012. 48: 260-273.

75. Rose, S., P. Jaramillo, M. Small, I. Grossmann, and J. Apt, Reply to Powell and Cocke: On the probability of catastrophic damage to offshore wind farms from hurricanes in the US Gulf Coast. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2012. 109(33): E2193-E2194.

74. Mauch, B., P.M.S. Carvalho and J. Apt, Can a Wind Farm with CAES Survive in the Day-ahead Market? Energy Policy, 2012. 48: 584-593.

73. Lueken, C., G. Cohen, and J. Apt, The Costs of Solar and Wind Power Variability for Reducing CO2 Emissions. Environmental Science & Technology, 2012. 46(17):9761-9767.

72. McClellan, J., D.W. Keith, and J. Apt, Cost Analysis of stratospheric albedo modification delivery systems. Environmental Research Letters, 2012. 7(3): 034019.

71. Fertig, E., J. Apt, P. Jaramillo, and W. Katzenstein, The effect of long-distance interconnection on wind power variability. Environmental Research Letters, 2012. 7(3): 034017.

70. Changala, D., M. Dworkin, J. Apt, and P. Jaramillo, Comparative Analysis of Conventional Oil and Gas and Wind Project Decommissioning Regulations on Federal, State, and County Lands. The Electricity Journal, 2012. 25(1): 29-45.

69. Rose, S. and J. Apt, Generating Wind Time Series as a Hybrid of Measured and Simulated Data. Wind Energy, 2012. 15(5): 699-715.

68. Rose, S., P. Jaramillo, M. Small, I. Grossmann, and J. Apt, Quantifying the Hurricane Risk to Offshore Wind Turbines. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2012. 109(9): 3247-3252.

67. Hittinger, E., J. Whitacre, and J. Apt, What Properties of Grid Energy Storage are Most Valuable? Journal of Power Sources, 2012. 206: 436–449.

66. Apt, J., S. Peterson, and J.F. Whitacre, Battery Vehicles Reduce CO2 Emissions. Science, 2011. 333(6024): 823.

65. Fertig, E. and J. Apt, Economics of Compressed Air Energy Storage to Integrate Wind Power: A Case Study in ERCOT. Energy Policy, 2011. 39(5): 2330–2342.

64. Apt, J., C.T. Hendrickson, and G. Morgan, Lester Lave, Visionary Economist. Environmental Science & Technology, 2011. 45(13): 5457-5458.

63. Peterson, S.B., J.F. Whitacre, and J. Apt, Net Air Emissions from Electric Vehicles: The Effect of Carbon Price and Charging Strategies. Environmental Science & Technology, 2011. 45(5): 1792-1797.

62. Gilmore, E.A., J. Apt, R. Walawalkar, P.J. Adams, and L.B. Lave, The air quality and human health effects of integrating utility-scale batteries into the New York State electricity grid. Journal of Power Sources, 2010. 195(8): 2405-2413.

61. Hittinger, E., J.F. Whitacre, and J. Apt, Compensating for Wind Variability Using Co-Located Natural Gas Generation and Energy Storage. Energy Systems, 2010. 1(4): 417-439.

60. Gresham, R.L., S.T. McCoy, J. Apt, and M.G. Morgan, Implications of Compensating Property-Owners for Geologic Sequestration of CO2. Environmental Science & Technology, 2010. 44(8): 2897-2903.

59. Peterson, S.B., J.F. Whitacre, and J. Apt, The Economics of Using PHEV Battery Packs for Grid Storage. Journal of Power Sources, 2010. 195(8): 2377-2384.

58. Peterson, S.B., J. Apt, and J.F. Whitacre, Lithium-Ion Battery Cell Degradation Resulting from Realistic Vehicle and Vehicle-to-Grid Utilization. Journal of Power Sources, 2010. 195(8): 2385-2392.

57. Katzenstein, W., E. Fertig, and J. Apt, The Variability of Interconnected Wind Plants. Energy Policy, 2010. 38(8): 4400-4410.

56. Victor, D.G., M.G. Morgan, J. Apt, J. Steinbruner, and K. Ricke, The Geoengineering Option:  A Last Resort Against Global Warming? Foreign Affairs, 2009. 88(2): 64-76.

55. Hines, P., J. Apt, and S. Talukdar, Large Blackouts in North America: Historical trends and policy implications. Energy Policy, 2009. 37(12): 5249-5259.

54. Newcomer, A. and J. Apt, Near term implications of a ban on new coal-fired power plants in the US. Environmental Science & Technology, 2009. 43(11): 3995–4001. *Paper selected as Best Environmental Policy Paper of 2009 by Environmental Science & Technology*

53. Katzenstein, W. and J. Apt, Response to "Comment on 'Air Emissions Due to Wind and Solar Power' ". Environmental Science & Technology, 2009. 43(15): 6108-6109.

52. Katzenstein, W. and J. Apt, Air Emissions Due To Wind And Solar Power. Environmental Science & Technology, 2009. 43(2): 253-258.

51. Curtright, A. and J. Apt, The Character of Power Output from Utility-Scale Photovoltaic Systems. Progress in Photovoltaics, 2008. 16(3): 241-247.

Walawalkar, R., S. Blumsack, J. Apt, and S. Fernands, An Economic Welfare Analysis of Demand Response in the PJM Electricity Market. Energy Policy, 2008. 36(10): 3692-3702.

Newcomer, A. and J. Apt, Implications of generator siting for CO2 pipeline infrastructure. Energy Policy, 2008. 36(5): 1776-1787.

48. Apt, J., L. Lave, and S. Pattanariyankool, A National Renewable Portfolio Standard? Not Practical. Issues in Science & Technology, 2008. 25(1): 53-59.

47. Wilson, E.J., M.G. Morgan, J. Apt, M. Bonner, C. Bunting, M. de Figueiredo, J. Gode, C. Jaeger, D.W. Keith, S.T. McCoy, R.S. Haszeldine, M. Pollak, D.M. Reiner, E.S. Rubin, A. Torvanger, C. Ulardic, S. Vajjhala, D. Victor, and I. Wright, Regulating the Geological Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide. Environmental Science & Technology, 2008. 42(8): 2718-2722.

46. Newcomer, A., S.A. Blumsack, J. Apt, L.B. Lave, and M.G. Morgan, Short run effects of a price on carbon dioxide emissions from U.S. electric generators. Environmental Science & Technology, 2008. 42(9): 3139-3144.

45. Lave, L.B., J. Apt, and S. Blumsack, Deregulation/Restructuring Part II: Where Do We Go From Here? The Electricity Journal, 2007. 20(9): 10-23.

44. Lave, L.B., J. Apt, and S. Blumsack, Deregulation/Restructuring Part I: Re-regulation Will Not Fix the Problems. The Electricity Journal, 2007. 20(8): 9-22.

43. Walawalkar, R., J. Apt, and R. Mancini, Economics of electric energy storage for energy arbitrage and regulation in New York. Energy Policy, 2007. 35(4): 2558–2568.

42. Apt, J., D.W. Keith, and M.G. Morgan, Promoting Low-Carbon Electricity Production. Issues in Science & Technology, 2007. 24(3): 37-44.

41. Patiño-Echeverri, D., B. Morel, J. Apt, and C. Chen, Should a Coal-Fired Power Plant be Retrofitted or Replaced? Environmental Science & Technology, 2007. 41(23): 7980-7986.

40. Apt, J., The Spectrum of Power from Wind Turbines. Journal of Power Sources, 2007. 169(2): 369-374.

39. Newcomer, A. and J. Apt, Storing syngas lowers the carbon price for profitable coal gasification. Environmental Science & Technology, 2007. 41(23): 7974 - 7979.

38. Strauss, B., M.G. Morgan, J. Apt, and D.D. Stancil, Cell Phones: Unsafe at Any Airspeed:  Cellphones and other electronics are more of a risk than you think. IEEE Spectrum, 2006. 43(3): 44-49.

37. Lave, L.B. and J. Apt, Planning for Natural Disasters in a Stochastic World. Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, 2006. 33: 117-130.

36. Apt, J. and B. Fischhoff, Power and People. The Electricity Journal, 2006. 19(9): 17-25.

35. Apt, J., L.B. Lave, and M.G. Morgan, Power Play: A More Reliable U.S. Electric System. Issues in Science & Technology, 2006. 22(4): 51-58.

34. Blumsack, S., J. Apt, and L.B. lave, Response to Andy Ott's letter on "Lessons from the Failure of U.S. Electricity Restructuring". The Electricity Journal, 2006. 19(5): 4-6.

33. Blumsack, S., J. Apt, and L.B. Lave, Lessons from the Failure of U.S. Electricity Restructuring. The Electricity Journal, 2006. 19(2): 15-32.

32. Dobesova, K., J. Apt, and L.B. Lave, Are renewables portfolio standards cost-effective emission abatement policy? Environmental Science & Technology, 2005. 39(22): 8578-8583.

31. Blumsack, S., J. Apt, and L. Lave, A Cautionary Tale: U.S. Electricity Reform. Economic and Political Weekly (Special Issue: Power Sector Reform - International Experience), 2005. 40(50): 5279-5290.

30. Apt, J., Competition Has Not Lowered US Industrial Electricity Prices. The Electricity Journal, 2005. 18(2): 52-61.

29. Apt, J., L.B. Lave, S. Talukdar, M.G. Morgan, and M. Ilic, Electrical blackouts: A systemic problem. Issues in Science and Technology, 2004. 20(4): 55-61.

28. Ilic, M., J. Apt, P. Khosla, L.B. Lave, M.G. Morgan, and S. Talukdar, Introducing electric power into a multidisciplinary curriculum for network industries. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 2004. 19(1): 9-16.

27. Lal, R., M. Griffin, J. Apt, L. Lave, and G. Morgan, Response to comments on "Managing soil carbon". Science, 2004. 305(5690).

26. Lal, R., M. Griffin, J. Apt, L. Lave, and M.G. Morgan, Ecology - Managing soil carbon. Science, 2004. 304(5669): 393.

25. Lave, L., J. Apt, and S. Blumsack, Rethinking Electricity Deregulation. The Electricity Journal, 2004. 17(8): 11-26.

24. Talukdar, S., J. Apt, M. Ilic, L. Lave, and M.G. Morgan, Cascading Failures: Survival vs. Prevention. The Electricity Journal, 2003. 16(9): 25-31.

23. Apt, J. and L.B. Lave, Electric Gridlock: A National Solution. Public Utilities Fortnightly, 2003. 141(18): 14-16.

22. Apt, J., Toward a natural history museum for the 21st Century: Measuring effectiveness - Challenges and strategies. Museum News, 1997. 76(6): 43-46.

21. Amsbury, D.L., J. Wilkinson, K. Lulla, S. Ackleson, F.R. Brumbaugh, C. Evans, M.R. Helfert, D. Helms, W. Muehlburger, R.L. Gibson, C.L. Brown, M.C. Lee, J. Apt, J. Davis, M.C. Jamison, and M. Mohri, Earth Observations during Space Shuttle Mission STS-47: Endeavor's Mission to Planet Earth. Geocarto International, 1994. 9(3): 69-80.

20. Neff, J.S., T.A. Ellis, J. Apt, and J.T. Bergstralh, Bolometric Albedos of Titan, Uranus, and Neptune. Icarus, 1985. 62(3): 425-432.

19. Cruikshank, D.P. and J. Apt, Methane on Triton - Physical State and Distribution. Icarus, 1984. 58(2): 306-311.

18. Apt, J., N.P. Carleton, and C.D. Mackay, Methane on Triton and Pluto - New CCD Spectra. Astrophysical Journal, 1983. 270(1): 342-350.

17. Nisenson, P., J. Apt, R. Goody, and C. Papaliolios, Speckle Imaging for Planetary Research. Icarus, 1983. 53(3): 465-478.

16. Apt, J. and R.B. Singer, Cloud Height Differences on Saturn. Icarus, 1982. 52(3): 503-508.

15. Diner, D.J., J. Apt, and L.S. Elson, Comparison of Ground-Based and Spacecraft Observations of the Infrared-Emission from Venus - the Nature of Thermal Contrasts. Icarus, 1982. 52(2): 301-319.

14. Apt, J., G. Bailey, and J. Breckinridge, Near-Infrared Linear-Array Spectrometer for Space Applications. Proceedings of the Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, 1982. 331: 177-181.

13. Apt, J. and J. Leung, Thermal Periodicities in the Venus Atmosphere. Icarus, 1982. 49(3): 427-437.

12. Apt, J., J.V. Martonchik, and L.R. Brown, Comparison of Band Model and Integrated Line-by-Line Synthetic Spectra for Methane in the 2.3 µm Region. Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy & Radiative Transfer, 1981. 26(5): 431-442.

11. Nisenson, P., J. Apt, R. Goody, and P. Horowitz, Radius and Limb Darkening of Titan from Speckle Imaging. Astronomical Journal, 1981. 86(11): 1690-1693.

10. Apt, J., R.A. Brown, and R. Goody, The character of the thermal emission from Venus. Journal of Geophysical Research, 1980. 85: 7934-7940.

9.   Malkan, M., D.E. Kleinmann, and J. Apt, Infrared Studies of Globular-Clusters near the Galactic-Center. Astrophysical Journal, 1980. 237(2): 432-437.

8.   Apt, J., R. Goody, and L. Mertz, Simple Cassegrain Scanning System for Infrared Astronomy. Applied Optics, 1980. 19(10): 1590-1592.

7.   Shubert, G., C. Covey, A. Del Genio, L.S. Elson, G. Keating, A. Seiff, R.E. Young, J. Apt, C.C. Counselman, A.J. Kliore, S.S. Limaye, H.E. Revercomb, L.A. Sromovsky, V.E. Suomi, F. Taylor, R. Woo, and U. von Zahn, Structure and circulation of the Venus atmosphere. Journal of Geophysical Research, 1980. 85(A13): 8007-8025.

6.   Apt, J. and R. Goody, Anomalous Features in Thermal Radiance Maps of Venus. Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, 1979. 84(Na6): 2529-2538.

5.   Apt, J. and R. Goody, Infrared Image of Venus at the Time of Pioneer Venus Probe Encounter. Science, 1979. 203(4382): 785-787.

4.   Apt, J. and D.E. Pritchard, Velocity Dependence of Fine-Structure Changing Collisions of Na with Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, N2 and CO2. Journal of Physics B - Atomic Molecular and Optical Physics, 1979. 12(1): 83-98.

3.   Goody, R. and J. Apt, Observations of Sodium Emission from Jupiter, Region-C. Planetary and Space Science, 1977. 25(6): 603-604.

2.   Apt, J. and D.E. Pritchard, Velocity Dependence of Na+Ar and Na+Xe Fine-Structure Changing Collisions. Physical Review Letters, 1976. 37(2): 91-94.

1.   Pritchard, D.E., J. Apt, and T.W. Ducas, Fine-Structure of Na 4d 2D Using High-Resolution Two-Photon Spectroscopy. Physical Review Letters, 1974. 32(12): 641-642.

Selected Honors and Awards

  • Fellow, American Association for the Advancement of Science, 2013
  • Fellow, The Explorers Club, 2008
  • Metcalf Award for Outstanding engineering Achievement, 2002
  • David L. Lawrence Award of Vectors / Pittsburgh, 2000
  • NASA Distinguished Service Medal, 1997
  • NASA Exceptional Service Medal, 1993 and 1995
  • Federation Aeronautique Internationale V.M. Komarov Diploma, 1991 and 1992
  • Sergei P. Korolev Diploma, 1991
  • De La Vaulx Medal, 1998

Courses Taught

  • 45-995 Energy Business Capstone Project (MBA)
  • 45-966 Catastrophic Risk Analysis and Management (MBA)
  • 45-875 Government and Business (MBA)
  • 47-881 Seminar on Electric Power Restructuring (MBA and PhD students)
  • 47-882 Seminar on Low-Carbon Electric Power (MBA and PhD students)
  • 70-376 Energy Systems (Undergraduate Business major course)
  • 46-851 Problem Design and Verification (Undergraduate CIT optimization methods)
  • 39-405 Engineering Design: The Creation of Products and Processes (undergraduate CIT)

Students Supervised

Sole Advisor

  • Adam Newcomer, 2008 (now at NiSource)
  • Rahul Walawalkar, 2008 (now at Customized Energy Solutions)
  • Warren Katzenstein, 2010 (now at Facebook)
  • Shira Horowitz, 2012 (now at National Grid)
  • Brandon Mauch, 2012 (now at Ascend Analytics)
  • Colleen Horin Lueken, 2012 (now at Fluence)
  • Emily Fertig, 2013 (now at Google)
  • Steven Rose, 2013 (now at the Midcontinent ISO)
  • Jared Moore, 2014 (now at Meridian Energy and Policy Consulting)
  • Roger Lueken, 2014 (now at The Brattle Group)
  • Daniel Schnitzer, 2014 (now at EarthSpark International)
  • Michael Fisher, 2017 (now at Centrica plc)
  • Jeremy Keen, 2019 (now at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory)
  • Sinnott Murphy, 2019 (now at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory)
  • Gerad Freeman, 2019 (now at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratories)
  • Luke Lavin, 2021 (now at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory)
  • Sean Smillie
  • Yamit Lavi


  • Paul Hines, 2007 (now at the University of Vermont)
  • Graham William Strauss, 2005 (now at the Naval Air Warfare Center)
  • Robert Lee Gresham, 2010 (now at SAIC Energy, Environment & Infrastructure, LLC)
  • Scott Peterson, 2012 (now at Shady Side Academy)
  • Eric Hittinger, 2012 (now at Rochester Institute of Technology)

Research Interests

Reliability of the electric power grid. Mathematical, regulatory, and market characteristics of renewable and other low-carbon electric power. Low-carbon economics and technologies, including solar radiation management. Physical risk analysis and management. Mathematical, regulatory, and market characteristics of renewable and other low-carbon electric power. Low-carbon economics and technologies, including solar radiation management. Physical risk analysis and management.