Paul J. Sides-Chemical Engineering - Carnegie Mellon University

Paul J. Sides

Professor, Chemical Engineering

Office: Doherty Hall 3111
Phone: 412-268-2230
Fax: 412-268-7139

Bio

Dr. Sides is currently Professor of Chemical Engineering at Carnegie Mellon University. He received his B.S.Ch.E. from the University of Utah in 1973 and his Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering from the University of California at Berkeley in 1981. He joined the faculty of the Department of Chemical Engineering at Carnegie Mellon in 1981. He is a member of the Electrochemical Society and the American Institute of Chemical Engineers. He has published over eighty articles in three primary research areas: electrochemical engineering, materials, and colloid science. He has done basic research on electrolytic gas evolution, transport phenomena and kinetics of aluminum reduction, and corrosion of magnetic materials for high density recording with both flexible and rigid media. In the materials area, he has worked on growth and characterization of CdTe and CdZnTe by Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition. He also investigated growth of diamondlike carbon by Plasma Activated Chemical Vapor Deposition. He has two patents, one being an optical method for fly height measurement for magnetic disk drives and the other being a new zeta potential measurement apparatus and method. Currently he conducts research on charging of nonpolar liquids, measurement of zeta potential on planar surfaces, and high throughput electrochemical measurements. He founded a company, ZetaMetrix Inc, in 2006. Dr. Sides received a Fulbright Fellowship to lecture in the USSR and spent six months sabbatical leave at HITACHI Central Research Laboratory.

Education

Ph.D. 1981, Chemical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley

B.S. Ch.E. 1973, Chemical Engineering, University of Utah

Research

Professor Sides investigates topics in electrochemistry, electrochemical engineering, and colloid science.

Collaborating with Dennis Prieve, Professor Sides investigates forces that move microparticles laterally on electrodes when electric fields are applied normally to the electrolyte/electrode interface. While most investigators have concentrated on observing the in-plane motion, Prof. Sides and Prof. Prieve have been using Total Internal Reflection Microscopy to measure the out-of-plane motion, seeking clues to complex direct and induced forces that move the particles.

Prof. Sides is applying a novel instrument based on a rotating disk for quick and convenient determination of the zeta potential of macroscopic (> 1 mm significant dimension) surfaces. Currently he is attempting to adapt the instrument to measure the zeta potential of surfaces in nonpolar liquids.

Prof. Sides has also conceived, in collaboration with Dennis Prieve, a method for probing local electrochemical current density, on a length scale of microns, over areas as large as a square centimeter. This method, which uses colloidal particles as probes, should find use in high throughput electrochemical research.

Prof. Sides, in collaboration with Profs. Khair and Prieve, investigates the mechanisms of charging of mobile species and surfaces in nonpolar liquids.  The application area is the stability of dispersions of particles in nonpolar liquids.

Research Websites

Complex Fluids Engineering

Highlights

* Conceived a new approach to high throughput electrochemical testing of electrocatalysts and corrosion resistant alloys. Initial tests are promising and led to a grant from the National Science Foundation. If effective, it will be the useful capstone of a decade of research on a question that had seemed for a long time to be purely academic.

Awards and Honors

* Dupont Young Faculty Award, 1981
* Fulbright Fellowship, 1989
* HIVIP Scholar Hitachi Corporation, 1990

Publications

Recent Publications

Selected Publications

Full Publications

Recent Publications

P J Sides and D C Prieve,  “Surface conductivity and the streaming potential  near a rotating disk-shaped sample” Langmuir 29 13427-13432 (2013)
R M Rock, P J Sides, D C Prieve “Ensemble average TIRM for imaging amperometry”  Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 403, Pages 142-15 (2013).
R Rock, P J Sides, D C Prieve, "The effect of electrode kinetics on electrophoretic forces," J. Coll Interf. Sci 393 306-313 (2012).
Sides, P. J., Wong, K. M., Mukka, S., Moinpour, M., Tregub, A., Buehler, M. E., & Rawat, A. (2011). Simultaneous measurement of the zeta potential and permeability of p-CMP brush samples. International Conference on Planarization Technology (vol. 2011).
Christopher L. Wirth,* Reza M. Rock, Paul J. Sides, and Dennis C. Prieve  Single and Pairwise Motion of Particles near an Ideally Polarizable Electrode Langmuir, 27, 9781–9791 (2011).

Selected Publications


P. J. Sides and C.W. Tobias "Primary Potential and Current Distribution Around a Bubble on an Electrode," Journal of the Electrochemical Society 127 288 (1980).

P. J. Sides and C. W. Tobias "A Close View of Gas Evolution from the Back Side of a Transparent Electrode" Journal of the Electrochemical Society 132 583 (1985).

D. Snyder, S. Mahajan, E. Ko, P. Sides "Effect of Substrate Misorientation on Surface Morphology of Homoepitaxial CdTe Films Grown by OMVPE." J. Appl. Phys Let. 58 848 (1991).

K. Yong, P. Sides, A. Gellman, "The morphology of CdTe deposited by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy: the effect of substrate misorientation" J. Electronic Materials 26 1261 (1997).

J. Fagan, D. Prieve, P. Sides, "The Vertical Oscillatory Motion of a Single Colloidal Particle Adjacent to an Electrode in an ac Electric Field," Langmuir (2002), 18 7810-7820.

H. Kasumi, P. Sides, J. Anderson, "Interactions between two bubbles on a hot or cold wall," J. Coll. Interf. Sci., 276 239-247 (2004).

C. W. Strunk and P. J. Sides "Calibration Method for Measurement of Linear Nanometric Distances by Scattered Total Internal Reflection" Applied Optics 43 2046-2053 (2004).

J. Fagan, D. Prieve, P. Sides "Vertical Motion of a Charged Colloidal Particle near an AC Polarized Electrode with a Non-Uniform Potential Distribution: Theory and Experimental Evidence," Langmuir (2004), 20(12), 4823-4834.

J. Fagan, P. Sides, D. Prieve "Evidence of Multiple Electrohydrodynamic Forces Acting on a Colloidal Particle near an Electrode Due to an Alternating Current Electric Field," Langmuir 21 ASAP (2005).

P. Sides, J. Newman, J. Hoggard, D. Prieve, "Calculation of the Streaming Potential Near a Rotating Disk," Langmuir, (2006) 22 9765-9769.
J. Hoggard, P. Sides, D. Prieve, "Electrolyte Dependent Multiparticle Motion near Electrodes in Oscillating Electric Fields" Langmuir (2008) 24 2977-2982.

Christopher L. Wirth,* Reza M. Rock, Paul J. Sides, and Dennis C. Prieve  Single and Pairwise Motion of Particles near an Ideally Polarizable Electrode Langmuir, 27, 9781–9791 (2011).

R M Rock, P J Sides, D C Prieve “Ensemble average TIRM for imaging amperometry”  Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 403, Pages 142-15 (2013).

P J Sides and D C Prieve,  “Surface conductivity and the streaming potential  near a rotating disk-shaped sample” Langmuir 29 13427-13432 (2013)

Full Publications

1. P. J. Sides and C.W. Tobias "Primary Potential and Current Distribution Around a Bubble on an Electrode," Journal of the Electrochemical Society 127 288 1980.
2. P. J. Sides and C.W. Tobias "Resistance of a Planar Array of Spheres: Gas Bubbles on an Electrode," Journal of the Electrochemical Society 129 2715 (1982).
3. P. J. Sides "Axisymmetric Flow Driven by a Surface-Tension Gradient at a Mobile Interface," International Journal of Multiphase Flow 8 553 (1982).
4. P. J. Sides "Gas Evolution: Review of Phenomena and Effects" AIChE Symposium Series 79, No.229 226 (1983).
5. P. J. Sides and C. W. Tobias "A Close View of Gas Evolution from the Back Side of a Transparent Electrode" Journal of the Electrochemical Society 132 583 (1985).
6. P. Sides, G. Prentice, K. Hanson, "C. W. Tobias" Chemical Engineering Comm. 38 85 (1985).
7. K. V. Dapkus and P. J. Sides "Nucleation of Electrolytically Evolved Gases at an Ideally Smooth Electrode" Journal of Colloid and Interfacial Science 111 133 (1986).
8. J. Burgman, J. Leistra, P. J. Sides "A Performance Study of Aluminum/Cryolite Reference Electrodes for use in Cryolite-Based Melts" Journal of the Electrochemical Society 133 496 (1986).
9. P. J. Sides "Phenomena and Effects of Electrolytic Gas Evolution" Modern Aspects of Electrochemistry V. 18 R. E. White, B. E. Conway, J. O'M. Bockris, eds., Plenum, New York, 1986.
10. James Leistra and P. J. Sides, "Anode Polarization in the Hall Cell," Light Metals 1986 473 (1986).
11. J. Burgman and P. J. Sides, "A Reference Electrode for Hall Cell Measurements" Light Metals 1986 463 (1986).
12. K. V. Dapkus and P. J. Sides "Axisymmetric Surface-Tension-Driven Flow, International Journal of Multiphase Flow 13 403 (1987).
13. J. Leistra and P. Sides "Voltage Components at Gas Evolving Electrodes" Journal of the Electrochemical Society 134 2442 (1987).
14. J. Leistra and P. Sides "Hyperpolarization at Gas Evolving Electrodes, I. Aqueous Electrolysis" Electrochimica Acta 321489 (1987).
15. J. Burgman and P. Sides "Mass Transfer at the Cathode in the Hall Cell" Light Metals 1987 233 (1987).
16. R. Keller, J. Burgman and P. Sides "Electrochemical Reactions in the Hall/Heroult Cathode" Light Metals 1988 629 (1988).
17. J. Burgman and P. Sides "Measurement of Effective Diffusivity in Hall/Heroult Electrolyte" Light Metals 673 (1988).
18. G. Prentice and P. Sides "The Effect of Electrode Shape on the Cell Voltage of Hall Cells, I. Carbon Anodes" Electrochimica Acta 33 873 (1988).
19. P. J. Sides and G. Prentice "The Effect of Electrode Shape on the Cell Voltage of Hall Cells, II. Inert Anodes" Electrochimica Acta 33 1043 (1988).
20. J. Burgman and P. Sides "Electrochemical Measurement of Effective Diffusivity in Hall/Heroult Electrolyte" AIChE Journal 34 1649 (1988).
21. J. Leistra and P. Sides "Hyperpolarization of Gas Evolving Electrodes:Hall/Heroult Electrolysis" Electrochimica Acta 33 1761 (1988).
22. J. Burgman and P. Sides "On the Use of Rotating Electrodes in the Measurement of the Diffusion Coefficient of Aluminum Fluoride in Cryolitic Melts" Electrochimica Acta 34 841 (1988).
23. P. Bowman, E. Ko, and P. Sides "A Potential Hazard in Preparing Bromine-Methanol Solutions" J. Electrochem. Soc. 137 1309 (1990).
24. D. Snyder, E. Ko, P. Sides, S. Mahajan "Growth of CdTe by Organometallic Vapor Phase Epitaxy in an Impinging Jet Reactor", J. Appl. Phys. Let. 56 1166 (1990).
25. M. Gentzler, E. Ko, P. Sides, P. Bowman "Bromine-Methanol Etching of Cadmium Telluride in a Rotating Disk Reactor" Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 204 237 (1991).
26. D. Snyder, E. Ko, P. Sides, S. Mahajan "Effect of Substrate Orientation on CdTe Film Growth by OMVPE" Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 216 41 (1991).
27. D. Snyder, S. Mahajan, E. Ko, P. Sides "Effect of Substrate Misorientation on Surface Morphology of Homoepitaxial CdTe Films Grown by OMVPE." J. Appl. Phys Let. 58 848 (1991).
28. D. Snyder, P. Sides, E. Ko, S. Mahajan " Growth Kinetics, Crystal Structure, and Morphology of OMVPE-Grown Homoepitaxial CdTe" Journal de Physique IV v.1 C2 319 (1991).
29. P. J. Sides "The Dependence of the Corrosion Behavior of Rigid Disk Recording Media on the Deposition Conditions of the Underlayer, Magnetic layer, and Carbon Overcoat" J. Electrochem. Soc. 139 1352 (1992).
30. D. Snyder, P. Sides, E. Ko, "On the Rate and Uniformity of CdTe Deposition by OMVPE in an Impinging Jet Reactor: Experimental Studies" J. Crystal Growth 121 631 (1992).
31. D. Snyder, P. Sides, E. Ko, "On the Rate and Uniformity of CdTe Deposition by OMVPE in an Impinging Jet Reactor: Numerical Simulations" J. Crystal Growth 123 163 (1992).
32. D. Snyder, E. Ko, P. Sides "On the Role of the Carrier Gas in the Deposition of CadmiumTelluride from Dimethylcadmium and Diethyltellurium or Diisopropyltellurium" J. Electrochem. Soc. 139 L66 (1992).
33. S. Riedinger, D. Snyder, E. Ko, P. Sides, "Chemi-mechanical Polishing of Cadmium Telluride with Bromine-Methanol Solutions" Materials Science and Engineering B15 L9 (1992).
34. T. W. Chan, X. J. Bao, I. H. Oh, P. J. Sides, E. I. Ko "The Wet Etching of CdZnTe Substrates for OMVPE Growth," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 259 275 (1992).
35. P. Sides "Organometallic Vapor Phase Epitaxy of II-VI Layers," Encyclopedia of Advanced Materials, Editors: Bloor et al., Pergamon Press, London, pp 1877-1881 (1994).
36. P. Sides, G. Spratt, P. Kampf, "An Investigation of the Archivability of Metal Particle Tape", IEEE Transactions on Magnetics 30 4059 (1994).
37. P. Sides and W. Xu, "Spatial Variations of Radio Frequency Plasma Density Caused by a Step-change of Secondary Electron Emission Coefficient" J. Appl. Phys. 77 4293 (1995).
38. J. Kampf, P. Sides, G. Spratt, "Reproducible Direct Exposure Testing of Metal Evaporated Magnetic Media," J. Electrochem. Soc. 147 3550 (1995).
39. E. Anoikin and P. Sides "Plasma Activated Chemical Vapor Deposition of Bismuth Substituted iron garnets for blue wavelength magneto-optical data Storage" IEEE Transactions on Magnetics 31 3239-3241 (1995).
40. T.V. Anoikina, J. P. Kampf, P. J. Sides, G. W. D. Spratt, "Archivability of Metal-Based Flexible Media," Electrochemical Society Symposium Proceedings: Critical Factors in Localized Corrosion Chicago, IL (1995).
41. P. Sides "Apparatus and Method For Measuring Linear Nanometric Distances Using Evanescent Radiation" U.S. Patent 5,715,060.
42. P. Chin, P. Sides, R. Keller , "The Transfer of Nickel, Iron, and Copper from Hall Cell Melts to Molten Aluminum" The Canadian Metallurgical Quarterly 35 61 (1996).
43. W. Xu and P. Sides, "Axisymmetric rf plasma modeling of a single substrate process" <="" plasma="" trans.=""> 24 (1996).
44. P. Sides and J. Lo " Measurement of linear nanometric distances between smooth plane parallel bodies by scattered total internal reflection", Appl. Phys. Let. 69 141 (1996).
45. T. Anoikina, P. Sides, G. Spratt," Microscopic Studies of Corrosion Phenomena in ME and MP Flexible Media" IEEE Trans Magn. 32 4016 (1996).
46. J. Lo and P. J. Sides, "Measurement of Fly Height by Scattered Total Internal Reflection," J. Appl. Phys. 81 5381 (1997).
47. K. Yong, A. J. Gellman, and P. J. Sides, "The Structure and Composition of CdTe(100) and Vicinal Surfaces", Surface Science 374 65-72 (1997).
48. K. Yong, J. J. Reinoso, A. J. Gelman, and P. J. Sides, "The Reactivity of DimethylCadmium on GaAs(100) and CdTe(100)", J. Crystal Growth 174 708 (1997)
49. J. Reinoso, P. J. Sides, E. I. Ko, "Kinetic Limitations on Incorporation of Zn in Cd1-xZnxTe," J. Crystal Growth 174 713 (1997).
50. K. Yong, P. Sides, A. Gellman, "The morphology of CdTe deposited by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy: the effect of substrate misorientation" J. Electronic Materials 26 1261 (1997).
51. Adrian J. Devasahayam, Paul J. Sides and Mark H. Kryder, "Magnetic, Temperature and Corrosion Properties of the NiFe / IrMn Exchange Couple", J. Appl. Phys. 83 7216 (1998).
52. S. Guelcher, Y. Solomentsev, P. Sides, J. Anderson, "Thermocapillary phenomena and bubble coalescence during electrolytic gas evolution," J. Electrochem Soc. 145 1848 (1998).
53. K. Yong, H. Martinez, A. Gellman, P. Sides, "Homoepitaxial growth of CdTe on vicinal CdTe(100) surfaces: Reaction kinetics and mechanism," J. Vac. Soc. Tech. A 17 1 (1999).
54. K. Yong, Andrew Gellman, P. Sides, "Morphological Instability Of Cdte Deposited By Organometallic Vapor Phase Epitaxy, Proceedings of the Electrochemical Society Symposium, V. 23 1998.
55. H. Kasumi, S. Guelcher, Y. Solomentsev, P. Sides, J. Anderson, "Bubble Aggregation due to Thermocapillary Flow," Electrochemical Society Proceedings October, 1999.
56. H. Kasumi, S. Guelcher, Y. Solomentsev, P. Sides, J. Anderson, "Aggregation of Bubbles by Thermocapillary Flow," Proceedings of the Space Technology and Applications: and International Forum 2000, Albuquerque, NM, FEB 2000.
57. C. Strunk J. Lo, and P. Sides, "Calibration of Fly Height Measured by Scattered Total Internal Reflection," IEEE Trans. Magnetism, 36 2727 (2000).
58. H. Kasumi, S. Guelcher, Y. Solomentsev, P. Sides, J. Anderson, "Thermocapillary flow and aggregation of bubbles on a solid wall," J. Coll. Interf. Sci. 232 111-120 (2000).
59. Wu, M.-L.; Howard, K.; Grannen, K.; Gui, J.; Rauch, G. C.; Sides, P. J, "Properties and durability of thin a-C:H overcoats produced by PECVD," Thin Solid Films 377-378, 249-253 (2000).
60. C. Strunk, C. Zahn, P. Sides, "Comparison of the Phase Metrics DFHT IV and Zygo Pegasus 2000 fly height testers," Applied Optics 40 4507 (2001).
61. H. Kasumi, Y. Solomentsev, J. Anderson, P. Sides "Thermocapillary Driven Aggregation of Bubbles on Surfaces," Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Multiphase Flow (ICMF-2001), E. Michaelides, Ed., New Orleans, May 27-31.
62. P. Sides "Electrohydrodynamic Particle Aggregation on an Electrode Driven by an Alternating Electric Field Normal to It" Langmuir 17 5791-5800 (2001).
63. P. Sides, J. Anderson, H. Kasumi, S. Guelcher, Y. Solomentsev, "Electrokinetic and Themocapillary Flow Driven Aggregation of Particles and Bubbles on Surfaces," in Transport Processes in Bubbles, Drops, and Particles, 2nd ed. D. De Kee and R. Chhabra, eds., Taylor and Francis Inc., New York (2002) pp 55-78.
64. P. Sides, "Scaling of differential equations: Analysis of the Fourth Kind," Chemical Engineering Education pp 232-235 Summer (2002).
65. P. Sides "A Thermocapillary Mechanism for Lateral Motion of Bubbles on a Heated surface during Subcooled Nucleate Boiling" J. Heat Transfer 124 1203-1207 (2002).
66. J. Fagan, D. Prieve, P. Sides, "The Vertical Oscillatory Motion of a Single Colloidal Particle Adjacent to an Electrode in an ac Electric Field," Langmuir (2002), 18 7810-7820.
67. H. Yun, M. E. Patton, J. H. Garrett, Jr., G. K. Fedder, K. M. Frederick, J. Hsu, I. J. Lowe, Irving J. Oppenheim, P. J. Sides, "Developments in chlorine detection in concrete using NMR" SPIE Conference 2002 San Diego, CA.
68. J. Kim, J. Anderson, S. Garoff, P. Sides, "Effects of Zeta Potential and Electrolyte on Particle Interactions on an Electrode under ac Polarization," Langmuir 18 5387-5391 (2002).
69. Anderson, J. L., Kim, J., Garoff, S., Sides, P. J. Two-particle dynamics on electrodes. Proceedings - Electrochemical Society (2002), 2002-21(Electrophoretic Deposition), 191-197.
70. Sides, P. J., "Calculation of Electrohydrodynamic Flow around a Single Particle on an Electrode," Langmuir 19 2745-2751 (2003).
71. Fagan, J. A. Sides, P. J. Prieve, D. C. "Calculation of ac Electric Field Effects on the Average Height of a Charged Colloid: Effects of Electrophoretic and Brownian Motions," Langmuir 19 6627-6632 (2003).
72. Haebum Yun, Mark E. Patton, James H. Garrett, Jr., Gary K. Fedder, Kevin M. Frederick, Jung Jiin Hsu, Irving J. Lowe, Irving J. Oppenheim, Paul J. Sides, "Detection of Free Chloride in Concrete by NMR" Cement and Concrete Research 34 379-390 (2004).
73. H. Kasumi, P. Sides, J. Anderson, "Interactions between two bubbles on a hot or cold wall," J. Coll. Interf. Sci., 276 239-247 (2004).
74. C. W. Strunk and P. J. Sides "Calibration Method for Measurement of Linear Nanometric Distances by Scattered Total Internal Reflection" Applied Optics 43 2046-2053 (2004).
75. J. Fagan, D. Prieve, P. Sides "Vertical Motion of a Charged Colloidal Particle near an AC Polarized Electrode with a Non-Uniform Potential Distribution: Theory and Experimental Evidence," Langmuir (2004), 20(12), 4823-4834.
76. Y. Ding, S. Majetich, H. Rollins, P. Sides "High Pressure treatment and phase transformation of FePt nanoparticles" IEEE Trans. Magn. vol 284C, pp. 336-341 (2004)
77. P. Sides and J. D. Hoggard, James D. "Measurement of the Zeta Potential of Planar Solid Surfaces by Means of a Rotating Disk," Langmuir (2004), 20, 11493-11498.
78. James Hoggard, P. Sides, D. Prieve, “Measurement of the Streaming Potential and Streaming Current near a Rotating Disk to Determine Its Zeta Potential” Langmuir; 2005; 21(16); 7433-7438.
79. J. Fagan, P. Sides, D. Prieve "Evidence of Multiple Electrohydrodynamic Forces Acting on a Colloidal Particle near an Electrode Due to an Alternating Current Electric Field," Langmuir 21 1784-1794 (2005).
80. P. Sides and J. Hoggard, “Apparatus and Method for Determining the Zeta Potential of Surfaces and for the Measurement of Streaming Metrics Related Thereto” Filed June 2005, Status: Pending
81. J. Fagan, P. Sides, D. Prieve "Mechanism of Rectified Lateral Motion of Particles near Electrodes in Alternating Electric Fields below 1 kHz" Langmuir (2006) 22 9846-9852.
82. P. Sides, J. Newman, J. Hoggard, D. Prieve, "Calculation of the Streaming Potential Near a Rotating Disk," Langmuir, (2006) 22 9765-9769.
83. J. Hoggard, P. Sides, D. Prieve, Electrolyte-Dependent Pairwise Particle Motion near Electrodes at Frequencies below 1 kHz" Langmuir (2007) 23 6983-6990.
84. J. Hoggard, P. Sides, D. Prieve, "Electrolyte Dependent Multiparticle Motion near Electrodes in Oscillating Electric Fields" Langmuir (2008) 24 2977-2982.
85. D. Prieve, J. Hoggard, R. Fu, P. Sides, R. Bethea, "Two Independent Measurements of Debye Lengths in Doped Nonpolar Liquids." Langmuir (2008) 24 1120-1132.
86. P. Sides, D. Faruqui, A. Gellman "Dynamics of Charging of Muscovite Mica: Measurement and Modeling" Langmuir 25 1475-1481 (2009).
87. D. C. Prieve, C. L. Wirth, P. J. Sides "2-D assembly of colloidal particles on a planar electrode" Curr. Opinion Coll. Surf. Sci. 15 160-174 (2010).
88. P J Sides, C L Wirth, D C Prieve "An Imaging Ammeter for Electrochemical Measurements," Electrochemical and Solid State Letters 13 F10-F12 (2010).
89. PJ Sides, R Rock, and S Shekhar "Measurement of Zeta Potential with a Rotating Disk," in Chemical Mechanical Polishing 11 ECS Transactions 33 59-66 (2010).
90. P.J. Sides, S. Shekhar, R. Rock, M. Moinpour, M. Buehler, A. Tregub, and D. Hooper "Zeta potential and chemical mechanical planarization, " Proceedings of ICPT 2010 Phoenix, (2010)
91. CL Wirth, PJ Sides, DC Prieve "The Imaging Ammeter," J Coll Interf. Sci.  357 1-12 (2011).
92. PJ Sides, CL Wirth, DC Prieve, "Mechanism of directed assembly of colloidal particles in two dimensions by application of electric fields,"  Nanoparticle Deposition via Electrophoresis, James Dickerson, Editor, Springer Science. (2011)
93. Christopher L. Wirth,* Reza M. Rock, Paul J. Sides, and Dennis C. Prieve  Single and Pairwise Motion of Particles near an Ideally Polarizable Electrode Langmuir, 27, 9781–9791 (2011).
94. Sides, P. J., Wong, K. M., Mukka, S., Moinpour, M., Tregub, A., Buehler, M. E., & Rawat, A. (2011). Simultaneous measurement of the zeta potential and permeability of p-CMP brush samples. International Conference on Planarization Technology (vol. 2011).
95. R Rock, P J Sides, D C Prieve, "The effect of electrode kinetics on electrophoretic forces," J. Coll Interf. Sci 393 306-313 (2012).
96. R M Rock, P J Sides, D C Prieve “Ensemble average TIRM for imaging amperometry”  Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 403, Pages 142-15 (2013).
97. P J Sides and D C Prieve,  “Surface conductivity and the streaming potential  near a rotating disk-shaped sample” Langmuir 29 13427-13432 (2013)