Carnegie Mellon University

Graduate Course Catalog

Graduate-Level Biomedical Engineering Courses

42-611/42-411/27-709/27-411/Engineering Biomaterials | 12 units
This course will cover structure-processing-property relationships in biomaterials for use in medicine. This course will focus on a variety of materials including natural biopolymers, synthetic polymers, and soft materials with additional treatment of metals and ceramics. Topics include considerations in molecular design of biomaterials, understanding cellular aspects of tissue-biomaterials interactions, and the application of bulk and surface properties in the design of medical devices. This course will discuss practical applications of these materials in drug delivery, tissue engineering, biosensors, and other biomedical technologies. This course is a project-based option for graduate students that is taught concurrently with 42-411.

42-612/27-520 Tissue Engineering | 12 units
This course will train students in advanced cellular and tissue engineering methods that apply physical, mechanical and chemical manipulation of materials in order to direct cell and tissue function. Students will learn the techniques and equipment of bench research including cell culture, immunofluorescent imaging, soft lithography, variable stiffness substrates, application/measurement of forces and other methods. Students will integrate classroom lectures and lab skills by applying the scientific method to develop a unique project while working in a team environment, keeping a detailed lab notebook and meeting mandated milestones. Emphasis will be placed on developing the written and oral communication skills required of the professional scientist. The class will culminate with a poster presentation session based on class projects. May count as practicum for practicum-option MS.

42-613/27-570 Polymeric Biomaterials | 9 units
This course will cover aspects of polymeric biomaterials in medicine from molecular principles to device scale design and fabrication. Topics include the chemistry, characterization, and processing of synthetic polymeric materials; cell-biomaterials interactions including interfacial phenomena, tissue responses, and biodegradation mechanisms; aspects of polymeric micro-systems design and fabrication for applications in medical devices. Recent advances in these topics will also be discussed.

42-620 Engineering Molecular Cell Biology | 12 Units
Cells are not only basic units of living organisms but also fascinating engineering systems that exhibit amazing functionality, adaptability, and complexity. Applying engineering perspectives and approaches to study molecular mechanisms of cellular processes plays a critical role in the development of contemporary biology. At the same time, understanding the principles that govern biological systems provides critical insights into the development of engineering systems, especially in the micro- and nano-technology. The goal of this course is to provide basic molecular cell biology for engineering students with little or no background in cell biology, with particular emphasis on the application of quantitative and system perspectives to basic cellular processes. Course topics include the fundamentals of molecular biology, the structural and functional organization of the cell, the cytoskeleton and cell motility, the mechanics of cell division, and cell-cell interactions.

42-624 Biological Transport and Drug Delivery | 9 units
Analysis of transport phenomena in life processes on the molecular, cellular, organ and organism levels and their application to the modeling and design of targeted or sustained release drug delivery technologies. Coupling of mass transfer and reaction processes will be a consistent theme as they are applied to rates of receptor-mediated solute uptake in cells, drug transport and biodistribution, and drug release from delivery vehicles. Design concepts underlying new advances in nanomedicine will be described.

42-630/18-690 Introduction to Neuroscience for Engineers | 12 units | Spring
The first half of the course will introduce engineers to the neurosciences from the cellular level to the structure and function of the central nervous system (CNS) and include a study of basic neurophysiology; the second half of the course will review neuroengineering methods and technologies that enable study of and therapeutic solutions for diseases or damage to the CNS. A goal of this course is to provide a taxonomy of neuroengineering technologies for research or clinical application in the neurosciences.

42-631/86-631 Neural Data Analysis | 9 units
The vast majority of behaviorally relevant information is transmitted through the brain by neurons as trains of action potentials. How can we understand the information being transmitted? This class will cover the basic engineering and statistical tools in common use for analyzing neural spike train data, with an emphasis on hands-on application. Topics will include neural spike train statistics, estimation theory (MLE, MAP), signal detection theory (d-prime, ROC analysis), information theory (entropy, mutual information, neural coding theories, spike-distance metrics), discrete classification (naïve Bayes), continuous decoding (PVA, OLE, Kalman), and white-noise analysis. Each topic covered will be linked back to the central ideas from undergraduate probability, and each assignment will involve actual analysis of neural data, either real or simulated, using Matlab. This class is meant for upper-level undergraduates or beginning graduate students, and is geared to the engineer who wants to learn the neurophysiologist's toolbox and the neurophysiologist who wants to learn new tools. Those looking for broader neuroscience application (eg, fMRI) or more focus on regression analysis are encouraged to take 36-746. Those looking for more advanced techniques are encouraged to take 18-699.

42-632/18-698 Neural Signal Processing | 12 units  
The brain is among the most complex systems ever studied. Underlying the brain's ability to process sensory information and drive motor actions is a network of 10^11 neurons, each making 10^3 connections with other neurons. Modern statistical and machine learning tools are needed to interpret the plethora of neural data being collected, both for (1) furthering our understanding of how the brain works, and (2) designing biomedical devices that interface with the brain. This course will cover a range of statistical methods and their application to neural data analysis. The statistical topics include latent variable models, dynamical systems, point processes, dimensionality reduction, Bayesian inference, and spectral analysis. The neuroscience applications include neural decoding, firing rate estimation, neural system characterization, sensorimotor control, spike sorting, and field potential analysis. 

42-640/24-658 Image-Based Computational Modeling and Analysis| 12 units
Biomedical modeling and visualization play an important role in mathematical modeling and computer simulation of real/artificial life for improved medical diagnosis and treatment. This course integrates mechanical engineering, biomedical engineering, computer science, and mathematics together. Topics to be studied include medical imaging, image processing, geometric modeling, visualization, computational mechanics, and biomedical applications. The techniques introduced are applied to examples of multi-scale biomodeling and simulations at the molecular, cellular, tissue, and organ level scales.

42-647/24-659 Continuum Biomechanics: Solid and Fluid Mechanics of Physiological Systems | 12 units
This course provides a general survey of the solid and fluid mechanics of physiological systems, within the framework of continuum mechanics. The main objective of the course is to understand mathematical modeling of solid materials such as bone and tissues, and fluid mechanics of blood and other biofluids such as synovial fluid, etc. The course as a whole encourages class participation and discussion in a seminar-type fashion. The course begins with a historical review of the subject followed by a review of vector and tensor analysis, before discussing various measures of deformation and stress formulations. The development and understanding of appropriate constitutive models for particular problems are at the core of this course. Both analytical and to some extent experimental results are presented through readings from reports in recent journals and the relevance of these results to the solution of unsolved problems is highlighted. The intent is to provide the basic ideas of continuum mechanics for engineering and science students with little or no background in biomechanics or mathematical modeling, with particular emphasis on the application of quantitative and system perspectives to fluid and solid mechanics problems. In addition to looking at various examples with physiological applications, the last few weeks of the course are dedicated to discussing individually-crafted research projects for the students.

42-661 Surgery for Engineers | 9 units
This course explores the impact of engineering on surgery. Students will interact with clinical practitioners and investigate the technological challenges that face these practitioners. A number of visits to the medical center are anticipated for hands on experience with a number of technologies utilized by surgeons to demonstrate the result of advances in biomedical engineering. These experiences are expected to include microvascular surgery, robotic surgery, laparoscopic, and endoscopic techniques. Tours of the operating room and shock trauma unit will be arranged. If possible observation of an operative procedure will be arranged (if scheduling permits). Invited surgeons will represent disciplines including cardiovascular surgery, plastic and reconstructive surgery, surgical oncology, trauma surgery, minimally invasive surgery, oral and maxillofacial surgery, bariatric surgery, thoracic surgery, orthopedic surgery, and others. The Primary Instructor is Howard Edington, M.D., MBA System Chairman of Surgery, Allegheny Health Network. This course meets once a week for 3 hours. Several sessions will be held at the Medical Center, transport provided. Pre-requisite: Physiology 42-202 and one of the introductory engineering courses, 42-101, 06-100, 12-100. 18-100, 19-101, 24-101, or 27-100 Priority for enrollment is given to BME Graduate students and additional majors, followed by BME minors.

42-673 Special Topics: Stem Cell Engineering | 9 units
This course will give an overview over milestones of stem cell research and will expose students to current topics at the frontier of this field. It will introduce students to the different types of stem cells as well as environmental factors and signals that are implicated in regulating stem cell fate. The course will highlight techniques for engineering of stem cells and their micro-environment. It will evaluate the use of stem cells for tissue engineering and therapies. Emphasis will be placed on discussions of current research areas and papers in this rapidly evolving field. Students will pick a class-related topic of interest, perform a thorough literature search, and present their findings as a written report as well as a paper review and a lecture. Lectures and discussions will be complemented by practical lab sessions, including: stem cell harvesting and culture, neural stem cell transfection, differentiation assays, and immunostaining, polymeric microcapsules as advanced culture systems, and stem cell integration in mouse brain tissue. The class is designed for graduate students and upper undergraduates with a strong interest in stem cell biology, and the desire to actively contribute to discussions in the class.

42-674 Special Topics: Engineering for Survival: ICU Medicine
Special Topics: Engineering for Survival: ICU Medicine The overall learning objective of this class is to expose students to acute care medicine and the fundamentals of acute illness. The lectures review the structure and function of different body systems. Typical modes of failure (disease) are then described and illustrated with examples using actual de-identified cases based on over 30 years of experiences in the intensive care unit (ICU) by Dr. Rosenbloom. Field trips are made to a local critical care and emergency medicine simulation facility at the University of Pittsburgh. An optional opportunity to participate in ICU rounds is also available

42-675 Fundamentals of Computational Biomedical Engineering
This goal of this course is to enable students with little or no programming background to use computational methods to solve basic biomedical engineering problems. Students will use MATLAB to solve linear systems of equations, model fit using least squares techniques (linear and nonlinear), interpolate data, perform numerical integration and differentiation, solve differential equations, and visualize data. Specific examples for each topic will be drawn from different areas of biomedical engineering, such as bioimaging and signal processing, biomechanics, biomaterials, and cellular and biomolecular technology.

42-676/27-514 Bio-nanotechnology: Principles and Applications
Have you ever wondered what is nanoscience and nanotechnology and their impact on our lives? In this class we will go through the key concepts related to synthesis (including growth methodologies and characterizations techniques) and chemical/physical properties of nanomaterials from zero-dimensional (0D) materials such as nanoparticles or quantum dots (QDs), one-dimensional materials such as nanowires and nanotubes to two-dimensional materials such as graphene. The students will then survey a range of biological applications of nanomaterials through problem-oriented discussions, with the goal of developing design strategies based on basic understanding of nanoscience. Examples include, but are not limited to, biomedical applications such as nanosensors for DNA and protein detection, nanodevices for bioelectrical interfaces, nanomaterials as building blocks in tissue engineering and drug delivery, and nanomaterials in cancer therapy.

42-677 Rehabilitation Engineering
Rehabilitation engineering is the systematic application of engineering sciences to design, develop, adapt, test, evaluate, apply, and distribute technological solutions to problems confronted by individuals with disabilities. This course focuses on assistive technologies - technologies designed for use in the everyday lives of people with disabilities to assist in the performance of activities of daily living. The course surveys assistive technologies designed for a variety of functional limitations - including mobility, communication, hearing, vision, and cognition - as they apply to activities associated with employment, independent living, education, and integration into the community. This course considers not only technical issues in device development, but also the psychosocial factors and market forces that influence device acceptance by individuals and the marketplace. 

42-678/49-732 Medical Device Innovation and Realization
The increasing pace of medical discoveries and emerging technologies presents a unique and exciting time for medical devices. Medical devices range from biomaterials that stimulate the body to repair itself to drug eluting stints to robotic surgical systems. Because they seek to improve and prolong human health, there are unique requirements and challenges for medical device development compared to most other industries. This class will look at how medical device innovation is currently practiced as well as the drivers which govern it, such as the FDA, intellectual property, reimbursement, and funding. By the end of this course, students should be able to: (1) obtain a broad understanding of medical devices; (2) identify new product opportunities; (3) understand the drivers that affect medical device development; (4) develop strategies to address those drivers within the overall medical device development plan; and (5) conceptualize and develop a working prototype.

42-679/49-735 Medical Device Realization
This course is a companion to 42-678, Medical Device Innovation, which is a pre-requisite for this course. Medical Device Realization will take the research and early conceptualization work in 42-678and use it to further conceptualize and develop a prototype.

42-681 Engineering and Analysis of Complex Disease Models
One of the key challenges in the fields of tissue engineering and disease modelling is a disconnect between the use of robust bioengineering tools and our limited understanding of pathobiology. The future of these fields depends on biomedical engineers using their technical skill sets to study normal physiology and disease mechanisms. In this class, we will explore current state-of-the-art methods for creating tissue and disease models, including: 2D/3D tissue cultures, bioreactors, organs-on-a-chip, microfluidic models, disease-in-a-dish models (with discussions on coupling multiple tissue systems), animal models of disease, and CRISPR/CAS9. The first few weeks of the semester will focus on learning the state-of-the-art methods with 1 exam as an assessment. The rest of the class will focus on specific disease modules with journal reviews and experts sharing their research on disease models with the class. For assessment, students will read 1 journal article each week and provide a brief critique. In addition, they will write a grant and present to the class methods for creating a disease model of their choice. At the end of the class, students will be able to critically assess and design models of normal and pathobiological disease mechanisms. Prior knowledge of basic physiology is required.

42-682 Bioinstrumentation and Measurement
This course aims to build the understanding of basic concepts and applications of instrumentation used for biomedical research and patient care. The course will follow a fast track, using a flipped format to cover components ranging from simple resistors, capacitors, transistors, sensors, actuators, to operational amplifiers and microcontrollers, using a combination of lectures, guided tutorials, lab exercises, and term projects. Students will gain hands-on skills of how to integrate components into functional instruments, based on physiological measurements such as temperature, humidity, oxygen concentration, blood pressure, and EKG signals. MATLAB programming will be used throughout the course. The course is designed for advanced undergraduate and graduate students with a knowledge in basic physics of electricity and magnetism. 

42-683 Introduction to Machine Learning for Biomedical Engineers
This course introduces fundamental concepts, methods and applications in machine learning and datamining. We will cover topics such as parametric and non-parametric learning algorithms, support vector machines, neural networks, clustering, clustering and principal components analysis. The emphasis will be on learning high-level concepts behind machine learning algorithms and applying them to biomedical-related problems. This course is intended for advanced undergraduate and graduate students in Biomedical Engineering or related disciplines. Students should have experience with high-level programming language such as Matlab, basic familiarity with probability, statistics and linear algebra, and should be comfortable with manipulating vectors and matrices.

42-684/06-500  Principles of Immunoengineering and Development of Immunotherapy Drugs
This course will provide context for the application of engineering principles to modulate the immune system to approaches problems in human health. Basic understanding of the components and function of the innate and adaptive immune system. Students will leave with a basic understanding of immunology and of the engineering techniques used to develop and characterize immunotherapy systems. Where appropriate, we will discuss how immunoengineering fits into other disciplines of engineering such as mechanical, chemical, and materials science. Because the purpose of immunoengineering is disease treatment, we will discuss, the therapy pipeline, development of clinical trials and the FDA approval process. Immunotherapy will also be assessed within different disease contexts including cancer, infectious disease, allergies, prosthetics and implants, neuro and musculoskeletal disorders.

42-702 Advanced Physiology | 12 units | Spring
This course is an introduction to human physiology and includes units on all major organ systems. Particular emphasis is given to the musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, excretory, and endocrine systems. Modules on molecular physiology tissue engineering and physiological modeling are also included. Due to the close interrelationship between structure and function in biological systems, each functional topic will be introduced through a brief exploration of anatomical structure. Basic physical laws and principles will be explored as they relate to physiologic function. Prerequisite: 03-121 Modern Biology, or permission of instructor.

42-737/42-437 Biomedical Optical Imaging
Biophotonics, or biomedical optics, is a field dealing with the application of optical science and imaging technology to biomedical problems, including clinical applications. The course introduces basic concepts in electromagnetism and light tissue interactions, including optical properties of tissue, absorption, fluorescence, and light scattering. Imaging methods will be described, including fluorescence imaging, Raman spectroscopy, optical coherence tomography, diffuse optical spectroscopy, and photoacoustic tomography. The basic physics and engineering of each imaging technique are emphasized. Their relevance to human disease diagnostic and clinical applications will be included, such as breast cancer imaging and monitoring, 3D retinal imaging, ways of non-invasive tumor detection, as well as functional brain imaging in infants.

42-744 / 42-444 Medical Devices | 12 units
This course is an introduction to the engineering, clinical, legal and regulatory aspects of medical device performance and failure. Topics covered include a broad survey of the thousands of successful medical devices in clinical use, as well as historical case studies of devices that were withdrawn from the market. In-depth study of specific medical devices will include: cardiovascular medicine, orthopedics, and general medicine. We will study the principles of operation (with hands-on examples), design evolution, and modes of failure. Additional lectures will provide basic information concerning biomaterials used for implantable medical devices (metals, polymers, ceramics) and their biocompatibility, mechanisms of failure (wear, corrosion, fatigue, fretting, etc.). The level of technical content will require junior standing for MCS and CIT students, a degree in science or engineering for non-MCS or non-CIT graduate students, or permission of the instructor for all other students.

Selected Undergraduate-Level Biomedical Engineering Courses

Depending on the graduate degree program and option, a limited number of undergraduate courses relevant to biomedical engineering is allowed to count toward the degree requirements. The purpose is to allow students to develop breadth in an unfamiliar area. Courses other than those listed below may be accepted upon petition.

42-302 Biomedical Engineering Systems Modeling and Analysis | 9 units
This course is designed to enable students to develop mathematical models for biological systems and for biomedical engineering systems, devices, components, and processes and to use models for data reduction and for system performance analysis, prediction and optimization. Models considered will be drawn from a broad range of applications and will be based on algebraic equations, ordinary differential equations and partial differential equations. The tools of advanced engineering mathematics comprising analytical, computational and statistical approaches will be introduced and used for model manipulation.
Pre-requisite: Graduate standing. 

42-341/24-334 Introduction to Biomechanics | 9 units
This course covers the application of solid and fluid mechanics to living tissues. This includes the mechanical properties and behavior of individual cells, the heart, blood vessels, the lungs, bone, muscle and connective tissues as well as methods for the analysis of human motion.

42-401/42-402 Foundation of BME Design
This course sequence introduces Biomedical Engineering students to the design of useful biomedical products to meet a specific medical need. Students will learn to identify product needs, how to specify problem definitions and to use project management tools. Methods to develop creativity in design will be introduced. The course sequence is comprised of two parts: 42-401 is offered in the Fall semester and provides the students the opportunity to form project teams, select and define a project, create a development plan, and complete an initial prototype. 42-402 is offered in the Spring semester is a full semester course and completes the plan that was developed in the fall semester. This course culminates in the completion of multiple prototypes, a poster presentation, and a written report.

42-437 Biomedical Optical Imaging
Biophotonics, or biomedical optics, is a field dealing with the application of optical science and imaging technology to biomedical problems, including clinical applications. The course introduces basic concepts in electromagnetism and light tissue interactions, including optical properties of tissue, absorption, fluorescence, and light scattering. Imaging methods will be described, including fluorescence imaging, Raman spectroscopy, optical coherence tomography, diffuse optical spectroscopy, and photoacoustic tomography. The basic physics and engineering of each imaging technique are emphasized. Their relevance to human disease diagnostic and clinical applications will be included, such as breast cancer imaging and monitoring, 3D retinal imaging, ways of non-invasive tumor detection, as well as functional brain imaging in infants.

Graduate Courses Offered by Other CMU Departments

The courses below offered by other departments have been preapproved to be eligible for BME course requirement. Descriptions of these courses may be found in the University Course Catalog. Students are urged to contact the instructor if they are uncertain about the background required. Additional courses may be approved as electives upon petition, which must be submitted before taking the course. Regardless of the approval of individual courses, the overall course selection must reflect a clear theme in biomedical engineering.

02-730 Cell and Systems Modeling | 12 units

02-750 Automation of Scientific Research| 12 units

03-534 Biological Imaging and Fluorescence Spectroscopy | 9 units

03-712 Computational Methods for Biological Modeling and Simulation | 12 units

03-730 Advanced Genetics | 12 units

03-741 Advanced Cell Biology | 12 units

03-742 Advanced Molecular Biology | 12 units

03-620 Techniques in Electron Microscopy | 9 units

03-751 Advanced Developmental Biology and Human Health | 12 units

03-762 Advanced Cellular Neuroscience | 12 units

03-763 Advanced Systems Neuroscience | 12 units

03-871 Structural Biophysics | 12 units

06-804 Drug Delivery Systems | 9 units

09-741 Organic Chemistry of Polymers | 12 units

09-801 Special Topics in Physical Chemistry: Computational Tools for Molecular Science| 12 units

15-883 Computational Models of Neural Systems | 12 units

16-725 (Bio)Medical Image Analysis | 12 units

16-868 Biomechanics and Motor Control | 12 units

18-612 Neural Technology: Sensing and Stimulation

24-674 Design of Biomechatronic Systems for Humans | 12 units

27-565 Nanostructured Materials | 12 units

33-441 Introduction to BioPhysics | 10 units

33-767 Biophysics: From Basic Concepts to Current Research | 12 units

45-906 The Business of Healthcare Innovation | 6 units

49-850 Grand Challenge Innovation | 12 units

06-607 Physical Chemistry of Colloids and Surfaces | 9 units

06-609 Physical Chemistry of Macromolecules | 9 units

06-610 Rheology and Structure of Complex Fluids | 9 units

09-707 Nanoparticles | 12 units

10-601 Introduction to Machine Learning for M.S. | 12 units

10-701 Introduction to Machine Learning for Ph.D | 12 units

10-702 Statistical Machine Learning | 12 units

10-708 Probabilistic Graphical Models | 12 units

11-785 Introduction to Deep Learning | 12 units

15-853 Algorithms in the Real World | 12 units

16-711 Kinematics, Dynamic Systems and Control | 12 units

16-720 Computer Vision | 12 units

16-722 Sensing and Sensors | 12 units

16-824 Visual Learning and Recognition| 12 units

18-491 Fundamentals of Signal Processing| 12 units

18-614 Microelectromechanical Systems | 12 units

18-751 Applied Stochastic Process | 12 units

18-752 Estimation, Detection and Learning | 12 units

18-792 Advanced Digital Signal Processing | 12 units

18-793 Image and Video Processing| 12 units

18-794 Pattern Recognition Theory | 12 units

18-799K Special Topics in Signal Processing: Advanced Machine Learning | 12 units

21-690 Methods of Optimization | 12 units

24-614 Microelectromechanical Systems | 12 units

24-673 Soft Robots: Mechanics, Design and Modeling | 12 units

24-688 Introduction to CAD and CAE Tools | 12 units

24-703 Numerical Methods in Engineering | 12 units

24-778 Mechatronic Design | 12 units

24-780 Engineering Computation | 12 units

24-787 Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence for Engineers | 12 units

36-759 Statistical Models of the Brain | 12 units

85-765 Cognitive Neuroscience | 9-12 units

86-675 Computational Perception | 12 units

Graduate Courses Offered by the University of Pittsburgh

Carnegie Mellon graduate students may register for one course per semester at the University of Pittsburgh except for the last semester before graduation (see cross-registration page), where courses offered by the Department of Bioengineering and in the School of Medicine may be of particular interest. Students who plan to register for a course at the University of Pittsburgh must petition the Biomedical Engineering Department then apply through the Carnegie Mellon Enrollment Services. Plenty of time should be allowed for processing.

Special Courses for Biomedical Engineering Graduate Degree Requirements

42-701 Biomedical Engineering Seminar | 0 units
The Biomedical Engineering Seminar is required each semester for all students in residence. It provides opportunities to learn about research in various and related fields being conducted at other universities and in industry. All graduate students must register for either 42-701 or 42-801 during each semester of full-time study. Attendance is mandatory. Students may register for either 0 unit as 42-701 Biomedical Engineering Seminar or 3 units as Biomedical Engineering Seminar with Self-Study. Students registering for 42-701 receive a pass/fail grade based on the submission of notes taken at the seminars. Students registering for 42-801 receive a letter grade based on both notes taken at the seminar and reports from 2 hours of self-study following each seminar. 

42-790 Practicum in Biomedical Engineering | 12 units
Students will work with a local clinical researcher on a technical research, development or outreach project performed at a medical center with clinical exposure. The project will culminate in an oral presentation and an internally-archived written report which documents the project and its results. The presentation and report will be reviewed by the faculty advisor/liaison; this review will serve as the basis for the assignment of the course grade. Research Option MS and PhD students should not register for research us­ing this course and instead utilize their respective research courses, 42-890 and 42-990.

42-792 Extramural Practicum | 3-12 units
This course may be taken by M.S. or Ph.D. students as part of the arrangement to work in an outside organization during the summer, for the purpose of gaining experience in the real-world practice of biomedical engineering. In exceptional cases it may be performed during the academic year in conjunction with other courses on campus. Students should register for Section R during the summer or Section A during the academic year. A written report is required at the end of the semester. Research Option MS and PhD students should not register for research using this course and instead utilize their respective research courses, 42-890 and 42-990.

Require special arrangement through the advisor and approval of the department, and approval of the Office of International Education for foreign students.

42-798 Current Readings in Biomedical Engineering | 1 or 2 units
This course takes the "Journal Club" format involving at least three interacting research groups. Students are required to participate regularly and actively in discussing current literatures and make at least one presentation. The number of units is determined by the weekly or biweekly frequency. Students may receive at most 2 units over the entire period of training in each of the following broad areas - fundamental principles of biomedical engineering, technologies for biomedical research, technologies at the interface of biological and artificial materials, and clinical applications of biomedical engineering. Require special arrangement through the advisor and approval of the department,

42-799 Directed Study | 1-48 units
Students work with a faculty member of Biomedical Engineering to gain knowledge in areas where formal courses are not available. Emphasizing resourcefulness and initiative, the students with their advisors evolve a project with both research and development aspects. This course is intended for directed study only with permission of the Associate Department Head.

42-801 Biomedical Engineering Seminar | 3 units | Fall and Spring
The Biomedical Engineering Seminar is required each semester for all students in residence. It provides opportunities to learn about research in various and related fields being conducted at other universities and in industry. All graduate students must register for either 42-701 or 42-801 during each semester of full-time study. Attendance is mandatory. Students may register for either 0 unit as 42-701 Biomedical Engineering Seminar or 3 units as Biomedical Engineering Seminar with Self-Study. Students registering for 42-701 receive a pass/fail grade based on the submission of notes taken at the seminars. Students registering for 42-801 receive a letter grade based on both notes taken at the seminar and reports from 2 hours of self-study following each seminar. 

42-890 M.S. Research | 12-48 units | Fall, Spring, and Summer
M.S. students engaged in Lab research should register for 42-890. All research-option M.S. students must register for at least 12 units of this course each semester.

42-899 M.S. Project Report | 0 units
Research culminating in a M.S. research report. Research-option M.S. students must register for this course only during the final semester.

42-990 Ph.D. Thesis Research | 5-48 units
This course is designed to give students enrolled in the Ph.D. program an opportunity to conduct extensive research over the course of their studies culminating in a Ph.D. thesis.

All Ph.D. students must register for this course each semester, normally for at least 20 units while taking formal courses or 48 units thereafter.

42-996 Teaching Assistantship | 2 units | Fall and Spring
The 2-unit course is the vehicle for these teaching assignments. All students must register for this course only during semesters they are a Teaching Assistant (TA). The units received for this course are not counted toward M.S. or Ph.D. degree requirements. Assignments are made by the department office and announced at the beginning of each semester. The duties generally consist of grading problem sets and holding office hours. An instructor may ask a TA to fill for a lecture in a lecture if the instructor is unavoidably away from campus during the class period. This might occur for no more than a couple lectures for a given class. This course is a requirement for graduation and must be taken by all students; it is in no way linked to a student’s source of financial support. Additional compensation is provided for any TA who volunteers to assist beyond the required three semesters.

42-997 Ph.D. Qualifying Examination | 0 unit
Ph.D. students should register for this course during the semester scheduled for the qualifying examination. The purpose of the exam is to determine the student's general knowledge of the fields of engineering appropriate to the individual's research plan and to assess the student’s ability to use this knowledge in the solution of problems and in the execution of original research. The examination comprises written and oral parts. Students must take the qualifying examination at the time specified by the department. Upon satisfactorily passing the examination, the student will be accepted as a candidate for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy for up to six calendar years. If, at the end of this six-year period, the Ph.D. has not been awarded, the student must reapply for admission to the graduate program and will be judged competitively with other students applying at the same time. If the student is re-admitted, he or she may, at the discretion of the department, be requested to pass the qualifying examination again before the Ph.D. is awarded. A student may petition for extension of the six-year limit under extenuating circumstances such as a forced change of advisor, military service, or prolonged illness.

42-998 Ph.D. Proposal | 0 units
Ph.D. students should register for this course during the semester scheduled for the proposal examination. The exam includes a written proposal for thesis research and an oral examination. 

42-999 Ph.D. Thesis Defense | 0 units
Thesis defense examination for the Ph.D. in Biomedical Engineering. Ph.D. students must register for this course only during the final semester.