In May 2013, the federal government issued an Open Data Policy [pdf] mandating the sharing and re-use of digital data arising from federally funded projects. A repository of tools and best practices was released to help federal agencies and grantees implement the Open Data Policy. The requirements stipulated by the policy are summarized here.
In 2011, the National Science Foundation (NSF), National Institutes of Health (NIH), and other federal agencies began requiring researchers to manage and share research data arising from federally funded projects. The list of agencies that require data management plans to be included in grant proposals is available here.
In 2012, the National Research Council (NRC) issued The Future of Scientific Knowledge Discovery in Open Networked Environments [pdf]. The 182 page report emphasizes the importance of sharing and enabling re-use of research data and identifies barriers to achieving these goals. The University Libraries prepared a brief overview of the report and disseminated it to selected CMU Vice Presidents to facilitate campus discussion of this emerging mandate.