Creating a CD-Dept of Physics - Carnegie Mellon University

Physics Department Computing:  Creating a CD

Creating a CD on XP

1- Start the Sonic Record Now (start:all programs:sonic:recordnow) on XP machine.
2- From the "Record Now" window choose either Data disk or Audio CD or Exact Copy.
3- Select add files and folders button. The file browsing window appears. Browse to the file(s) you want to include and select them. Press "Add" to add them to your CD image. Do that for all the files you want to include, and when you finish, press the Burn button.. Most CD's holds about 650 MB.
4- If you choose to burn the CD now, the program will ask you for a blank CD if you haven't inserted one yet.
5- If every thing went smoothly, the CD burning procedure starts.

Notes:
- In general, CD copying is fragile. Keep the machine at minimum possible use during burning.
- You can use either CD-R disks or CD-RW disks in this process. CD-RW disks can be erased and rewritten (up to 100 times or so) but the CD-R disks are cheaper.
- You can get CD-R and CD-RW disks from physics storeroom..
- To erase a CD-RW go to "home tab" then utilities

Creating a CD on Macintosh

We have a newly installed CDRW on the iMac computer named sage.phys.cmu.edu. CD writing is carried out using the program called Toast.

Notes:
- In general, CD copying is fragile. Keep the machine at minimum possible use during burning.
To make an identical copy of a CD you should make an image of the CD, save it, and burn the image. Direct CD to CD copying is possible but it is a very sensitive process and any error will produce an usable CD.
- You can use either CD-R disks or CD-RW disks in this process. CD-RW disks can be erased and rewritten (up to 100 times or so) but the CD-R disks are cheaper.
- You can get CD-R and CD-RW disks from CompUSA. They offer rebates every week on them, so you might even get them for free!!.
- To erase a CD-RW go to "easy CD Creator" (You might need to cancel the wizard) and choose Erase Disc from the Disc menu.
- From the CD-Recorder properties under the Tools menu you can choose the burning speed of the CD. Our CD-writer supports up to 6x writing. The higher you go the faster the process. Lower speeds are recommended for fewer errors. At 2x a full CD takes about 1 hour to burn.
- You might need to rename files. This is because in burning CD's you might choose (go to CD layout properties under the file menu and press on the Data settings tab) one of two file systems;

Creating a CD on Linux

A CDRW is installed on yang.phys, euler.phys and navier.phys. With the CDRW you can write, erase and overwrite CD's. With a 650MB capacity, CD's are an excellent way to back up large directories for permanent storage. The entire process requires less than an hour to record 650MB at the slowest (2X) speed. CD-R disks are write-once, while CD-RW disks can be rewritten many times. Blank disks cost a couple dollars each.

The commands to write CD's are simple to use and are located in the physics Tools directory (see below). CD writing is a two-step process

  • Create a disk image: mkisofs -r -o /tmp/name.iso path/name
  • "Burn" the CD: cdrecord -v speed=2 dev=0,4,0 -data /tmp/name.iso

On euler.phys, use speed=2 dev=2,0,0. On navier.phys, use speed=4 dev=1,0,0.

Here path/name is the path to the file or directory you wish to place on the CD. The image name.iso is stored on /tmp because this is a large space for storage of temporary files. You can feel free to delete files from /tmp as needed to make space. Please remove /tmp/name.iso when you have finished using it.

Because CD recording relies on a steady stream of data as the burning progresses, it is wise to minimize your computer usage during the writing process. Running small commands or background jobs at low priority does not degrade the CD, but crashing the computer will surely have an adverse effect!

To rewrite (erase and write over) a CD-RW disk, put blank=fast in the string of options to the cdrecord command. To do a trial run without actually writing anything, use the option -dummy. To check your work after you are done, enter mount /mnt/cdrw, inspect the files you stored on /mnt/cdrw, then enter umount /mnt/cdrw.

The mkisofs and cdrecord programs are in the Tools directory. Include this directory in your path by executing the command
set path=($path /afs/andrew/mcs/physics/Tools/bin)
It is convenient to include that line in your .login file so it runs automatically when you log in.

For further information you might want to read the CD-Writing-HOWTO at linuxdoc.org.

Formats

ISO9660: Select this option if you want to be able to read the CD on different platforms including DOS, Macintosh, OS/2, Windows and UNIX. Files and directories recorded to CD based on the ISO 9660 standard must meet the following (8+3) requirements:

(i)  A file name may not contain more than eight alphanumeric characters and the underscore symbol "_".
(ii)  A file name extension may not contain more than three alphanumeric characters.
(iii) A directory name may not contain more than eight alphanumeric characters and the underscore symbol "_".

Joliet: Select this option if you want to use file names that contain up to 64 characters in length, including spaces. Joliet also records the associated DOS-standard name (8+3 characters) for each file so that the CD may be read on DOS systems or earlier versions of Windows.