Philip R. LeDuc-Mechanical Engineering - Carnegie Mellon University

Philip R. LeDuc

William J. Brown Professor, Mechanical Engineering

Courtesy Appointments, Biological Sciences, Biomedical Engineering, Computational Biology

5000 Forbes Avenue
Scaife Hall 420
Pittsburgh, PA 15213
Phone: 412-268-2504
Fax: 412-268-3348


Student-Run Website:
Personal Web Page:
PodCast (in the area of "Disruptive Science and Technology"):
New Course in Culinary Mechanics (CBS news-clip):
Founding Director, Center for the Mechanics and Engineering of Cellular Systems:

Planes, Trains, Automobiles...and Cells?

Biological systems are not simply collections of biochemical reactions or easily deconstructed morphological changes – they are complex systems with multiple driving forces. These forces range from the dipolar torque on biomolecules in the cytoplasm to the cyclic strain on fibroblasts in cardiac tissue, and need to be leveraged through re-engineering at each scale to make critical advances in treating disease. We have already improved our lives with more traditional study of disease, but we also need new approaches to generate future treatments. By working across fields and deconstructing biological systems using engineering approaches we can realize new treatments. We are uniquely positioned to lead this charge into the tangled web of biomechanics that drive biological systems.

As a mechanical engineer, I think about how biological systems work in the same way that I think about how engineered systems work. I have spent my life taking apart complex systems to gain an understanding of how they function, an activity that started in my youth with lawn mowers and cars, and now encompasses the cell’s tremendously more advanced machinery. My engineering instincts lead me to explore how robots work, how satellites are constructed, and how energy is harnessed to power machines. Yet I am particularly fascinated by nature’s machines, and I look to the intersection of biology and mechanical engineering as a source of discovery. I wonder: Do engineered, man-made systems have anything in common with the biological systems of nature? Can comparisons be drawn between the engineered machinery in satellites, robots, and solar-powered vehicles and the natural machinery of molecules, cells, and organisms? My answer is: yes. By envisioning cells and molecules as "engineered systems" that can be investigated with the same fundamental approaches used to understand man-made machines, we can uncover unifying principles between these systems in order to confront disease and create medical innovations. These biological systems can range from the mammalian cell to the microorganism (e.g., magnetotactic bacteria, energy generating bacteria, Xenopus laevis embryos, artificial cells, stem cells, plant cells, algae), and my team applies principles from across mechanical engineering (e.g., solid mechanics, control theory, fluidics, design) to understand diverse, nature-based systems and address disease. My goal is to build upon the foundation I have created in the first decade of my career to radically shift how disease is approached by deconstructing the mechanical and chemical environment driving tissue development and cellular integration, in order to leverage the forces and mechanics underlying disease into developing new treatments and starting companies in areas such as malnutrition and bioenergy.

Professional Experience

Philip has also been honored to have been invited to be part of many efforts that are poised to have an impact in the future. He served on a panel requested by the US Senate and House of Representatives for Research, which resulted in the report "Rising above the Gathering Storm" (his 12 person panel included 2 Nobel Prize winners, a University President, and many members of the National Academies). He also was an invited attendee at the Global Grand Challenges Summit organized by the US National Academy of Engineering, the Royal Academy of Engineering, and the national engineering academy of China,. He was also invited and attended multiple National Academies Keck Futures Initiative (NAKFI) meetings as well as their ad hoc committee and a select group for their Grant Review Working Group (the final report of this group was presented directly to all 3 presidents of the National Academies). Furthermore, he was invited and attended the National Academy of Sciences Frontiers of Science Symposium (he is the 1st person from CIT to attend this) as well as was invited and attended the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) Frontiers of Engineering Symposium. He was also on the organizing committee for the 2008 India-American Frontiers of Engineering (IAFOE) for the NAE as well. In addition, he has been invited/given talks at National Research Council, Washington Speaker Series, NAE Global Grand Challenges Summit meetings. He also was/is a member of the Board of Directors of the national Biomedical Engineering Society and the American Institute for Medical & Biological Engineering. He was a member of the Sloan Foundation Minority PhD program. He has also been involved with mission trips in Africa and Armenia.

Philip is also blessed to have received a number of awards including the National Science Foundation CAREER, George Tallman Ladd Research Award, Russell V. Trader Career Faculty Fellow, Benjamin Richard Teare Teaching Award, “Professor of the Year” as voted by the senior class, MARC Minority Faculty Mentor Award, and Beckman Foundation Young Investigator Award (he is the 2nd person ever at Carnegie Mellon to receive this). He is a member of the National Research Council Roundtable on Biomedical Engineering Materials and Applications (BEMA). He is also a Fellow of the Biomedical Engineering Society, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, and the American Institute for Medical & Biological Engineering.

The LeDuc lab would like to thank the following organizations for funding: the Gates Foundation (the 2nd Carnegie Mellon faculty member to receive this), National Science Foundation, Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Office of Naval Research, Department of Energy-Genome to Life Program, National Institute of Health, Merck Computational Biology and Chemistry, Heinz, Sloan Foundation, National Academies Keck Futures Initiative, and Beckman Foundation.


B.S. 1993, M.S. 1995, Vanderbilt University, North Carolina State University

Ph.D. 1999, Johns Hopkins University

Post-doc, Children's Hospital/Harvard Medical School

Selected Publications (h-index=20+)

To request PDFs of publications:

* = 
corresponding author


  • Kim, Y.T., Hazar, M., Vijayraghavan, D., Song, J., Messner, W.C.*,  Davidson, L.A.*, LeDuc, P.R.* Mechanochemical Actuators of Embryonic Epithelial Contractility Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (in press)
  • Sei, Y., Justus, K., LeDuc, P.R.*, Kim, Y.T.* Engineering Living Systems on Chips: From Cells to Human on Chips. Microfluidics and Nanofluidics 16, 907-920 (2014).
  • Gonzalez, L.M. Ruder, W.C., LeDuc, P.R.*, Messner, W.C.* Controlling Magnetotactic Bacteria through an Integrated Nanofabricated Metallic Island and Optical Microscope Approach. Scientific Reports 4, 4104 (2014).
  • Tan, C., Saurabh, S., Bruchez, M., Schwartz, R.*, LeDuc, P.R.* Molecular Crowding Shapes Gene Expression in Synthetic Cellular Nanosystems. Nature Nanotechnology 8, 602–608 (Cover, 2013).
  • Cheng, C.M., Kim, Y.T., LeDuc, P.R. Probing the Dynamic Responses of Individual Actin Filaments Under Fluidic Mechanical Stimulation via Microfluidics. Applied Physics Letters 102, 193704 (2013).
  • Kim, Y. T.*, LeDuc, P. R.*, & Messner, W. C.* Modeling and Control of a Nonlinear Mechanism for High Performance Microfluidic Systems. IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology: a Publication of the IEEE Control Systems Society 21, 203-211 (2013).
  • Egan, P.F., Cagan, J.*, Schunn, C.*, LeDuc, P.R.* Design Of Complex Biologically-Based Nanoscale Systems using Multi-Agent Simulations and Structure-Behavior-Function Representations. Journal of Mechanical Design 135 (6), 061005 (2013).


  • Ruder, W.C.*, LeDuc, P.R.* Cells Gain Traction in 3D. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 109, 11060-11061 (2012).
  • Tan, C., Lo, J., LeDuc, P.R.*, Cheng, C.-M.* Frontiers of Optofluidics in Synthetic Biology. Lab Chip 12, 3654-3665 (2012).
  • Kim, Y. T., Messner, W. C.* & LeDuc, P. R.* Disruptive Microfluidics: From Life Sciences to World Health to Energy. Disruptive Science and Technology 1: 41-53 (2012).
  • Ruder, W.C., Pratt, E.D., Brandy, N.Z.D., LaVan, D., LeDuc, P.R.*, & Antaki, J.A.* Calcium Signaling is Gated by a Mechanical Threshold in Three-Dimensional Environments. Scientific Reports 2, 554 (2012).
  • Didier, J.E., Schafer, C.M., & LeDuc, P.R.* Programmed Biologically Inspired Synthetic Templating of Multifunctional Nanoarchitectures for Small-Scale Reactions. European Journal of Inorganic Chemistry 32, 5405-5410 (2012). 
  • Lee, B., LeDuc, P.R., Schwartz, R. Three-Dimensional Stochastic Off-Lattice Model of Binding Chemistry in Crowded Environments. PLoS One 7, e30131 (2012).
  • Cassino, T.R., Drowley, L. Okada, M., Beckman, S.A., Keller, B., Tobita, K., LeDuc, P.R. & Huard, J. Mechanical Loading of Stem Cells for Improvement of Transplantation Outcome in a Model of Acute Myocardial Infarction: The Role of Loading History. Tissue Engineering Part A. 18, 1101-1108 (2012).
  • Ruder, W.C., Pratt, E.D., Bakhru, S., Sitti. M., Zappe, S., Cheng, C.M., Antaki, J.A.*, & LeDuc, P.R.* Three-Dimensional Microfiber Devices that Mimic Physiological Environments to Probe Cell Mechanics and Signaling. Lab Chip, 12, 1775-1779 (2012).
  • Ruder, W.C., Chia-Pei, D.H., Edelman, B.D., Schwartz, R.*, & LeDuc, P.R.* Biological Colloid Engineering: Self-Assembly of Dipolar Ferromagnetic Chains in a Functionalized Biogenic Ferrofluid. Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 063701 (2012).


  • LeDuc, P.R.*, Messner, W.C.,* & Wikswo, J.P.* How Do Control-Based Approaches Enter into Biology? Annual Reviews of Biomedical Engineering 13, 369-396 (2011).
  • Kim, Y, Joshi, S.D., Messner, W.C.*, LeDuc, P.R.,* & Davidson, L.A.* Detection of Dynamic Spatiotemporal Response to Periodic Chemical Stimulation in a Xenopus Embryonic Tissue. PLoS ONE 6(1), e14624 (2011).
  • Li, Z., Zhang, Y., LeDuc, P.R., & Gregory, K.B. Microbial Electricity Generation via Microfluidic Flow Control. Biotechnology and Bioengineering 108, 2061-2069 (2011).
  • Zeng, Y., Lai, T., Koh, C., LeDuc, P. R.*, & Chiam, K. H.* Investigating Circular Dorsal Ruffles through Varying Substrate Stiffness and Mathematical Modeling. Biophysical Journal, 101, 2122-2130 (2011).
  • Kim, Y, Joshi, S.D., Davidson, L.A., LeDuc, P.R.,* & Messner, W.C.* Dynamic Control of 3D Chemical Profiles with a Single 2D Microfluidic Platform. Lab on a Chip 11, 2182-2188 (2011).
  • Wilson, M.E., Kota, N. Kim, Y., Wang, Y. Stolz, D., LeDuc, P.R. *, & Ozdoganlar, O.B.*, Fabrication of Circular Microfluidic Channels by Combining Mechanical Micromilling and Soft Lithography. Lab on a Chip 11, 1550-1555 (2011).
  • Cheng, C.-M., Dawson, J.T., Guo, Q., LeDuc, P.R.*, & Li, B.* Maskless fabrication of small-scale structures through controlling phase interactions. Applied Physics A 102, 185-188 (2011).
  • Kang, J., Steward, R.L., Kim, Y.T., Schwartz, R., LeDuc, P.R., Puskar, K.M., Response of an Actin Filament Network Model under Cyclic Stretching through a Coarse Grained Monte Carlo Approach. Journal of Theoretical Biology 274, 109-119 (2011).
  • Cheng, C.-M., LeDuc, P.R. Lin, Y.-W. Localized Bimodal Response of Neurite Extensions and Structural Proteins in Dorsal-Root Ganglion Neurons with Controlled Polydimethylsiloxane Substrate Stiffness. Journal of Biomechanics 44, 856-862 (2011).
  • Lee, B., LeDuc, P.R., Schwartz, R. Unified Regression Model of Binding Equilibria in Crowded Environments. Scientific Reports (Nature Publishing group) 1, 97 (2011).
  • Hazar, M., Steward, R. L., Chang, C. J., Orndoff, C. J., Zeng, Y., Ho, M. S., LeDuc, P. R., & Cheng, C. M.* Modulating Material Interfaces Through Biologically-inspired Intermediates. Applied Physics Letters, 99, 233701 (3) (2011).
  • Steward, R. L., Cheng, C. M., Ye, J. D., Bellin, R. M., & LeDuc, P. R.* Mechanical stretch and shear flow induced reorganization and recruitment of fibronectin in fibroblasts. Scientific Reports (Nature Publishing Group), 1(147), 1-12 (2011).
  • Chou, S., Cheng, C.-M., Lin, Y. W., Chen, C.-C.*, & LeDuc, P. R.* Localized Neurite Outgrowth Sensing through Micro-patterned Elastic Substrates. Soft Matter, 21, 9871-9877(2011).
  • Ruder, W.C.*, LeDuc, P.R.* Bioinspirations: Cell-Inspired Small-Scale Systems for Enabling Studies in Experimental Biomechanics. Integrative and Comparative Biology (Former journal name: American Zoologist) 51(1), 128-132 (2011). 


  • Lin, Y.W., Bellin, R.M., Cheng, C.M., Steward, R., Cheng, Y.R., LeDuc, P.R.*, & Chen, C.C.,* Probing Localized Neural Mechanotransduction through Surface-Modified Elastomeric Matrices and Electrophysiology.Nature Protocols 714, 5 (4), 714-724 (2010).
  • Steward, R.L., Cheng, C.M., Wang, D.L., & LeDuc, P.R.* Probing Cell Structure Responses Through a Shear and Stretching Mechanical Stimulation Technique. Cell Biochem Biophys 56, 115-124 (2010).
  • Huang, X., Ni, J., Yan, LeDuc, P.R., Yao, J., Lin, Q. Thermally Tunable Polymer Microlenses for Biological Imaging. Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, 19 (6), 1444-1449, 2010.
  • Singh, M., Gracio, J., LeDuc, P., Gonçalves, P., Marques, P., Gonçalves, G., Marques, F., Silva, V., Capela e Silva, F., Potes, J., Sousa, A. Integrated Biomimetic Carbon Nanotube Composites for In Vivo Systems. Nanoscale 2, 2855-2863 (2010)
  • Kim, Y.T., Pekkan, K., Messner, W.C.,* & LeDuc, P.R.* Three-Dimensional Chemical Profile Manipulation Using Two-Dimensional Autonomous Microfluidic Control. Journal of the American Chemical Society (JACS) 132, 1339-1347 (2010).


  • Bellin, R.M.*, Kubicek, J.D., Frigault, M.J., Kamien, A.J., Steward, R., Barnes, H.M., DiGiacomo, M.B., Duncan, L.J., Edgerly, C.K., Morse, E.M., Park, C.Y., Fredberg, J.J., Cheng, C.M., & LeDuc, P.R.* Defining the Role of Syndecan-4 in Mechanotransduction using Surface-Modification Approaches. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106 (52), 22102-22107 (2009).
  • Lin, Y-W, Cheng, C.M., LeDuc, P.R.*, Chen, C-C* 2008 Understanding Sensory Nerve Mechanotransduction through Localized Elastomeric Matrix Control. PLoS ONE 4(1): e4293 (2009).
  • Yang, J.M.,Didier, J.E., Cassino, T.R., & LeDuc, P.* Spatiotemporal Control of Apical and Basal Living Subcellular Chemical Environments through Vertical Phase Separation. Small 5, 1984-1989 (2009).
  • Kumar, S.*, & LeDuc, P.* Dissecting the Molecular Basis of the Mechanics of Living Cells. Experimental Mechanics 49, 11-23 (2009).
  • Cheng, C.M., Kim, Y.T., Yang, J.M.,Leuba, S.H., & LeDuc, P.R.* Dynamics of Individual Polymers Using Microfluidic Based Microcurvilinear Flow. Lab on a Chip 9, 2339-2347 (2009).
  • Leuba, S.H., Wheeler, T.B., Cheng, C.M., LeDuc, P.R., Fernández-Sierra, M., Quiñones E. 2008 Structure and Dynamics of Single DNA Molecules as Manipulated by Magnetic Tweezers and or Flow. Methods 47, 214-222 (2009).
  • Cheng, C.M., Matsuura, K., Wang, I.-J., Kuroda, Y., LeDuc, P.R.*, & Naruse, K.* Fabricating Small-Scale Curved Polymeric Structures with of Convex and Concave Menisci through Interfacial Free Energy Equilibrium. Lab on a Chip 9, 3306-3309 (2009).
  • Lee, B., LeDuc, P.R., Schwartz, R. Parameter Effects On Binding Chemistry In Crowded Media Using A Two-Dimensional Stochastic Off-Lattice Model. Physical Review E 80, 041918 (2009).
  • Cheng, C.M., Steward, R.L., & LeDuc, P.R.* 2008 Probing Cell Structure by Controlling the Mechanical Environment with Cell-Substrate Interactions. Journal of Biomechanics 42, 187-192 (2009).
  • Kim, Y.T., Kuczenski, B., LeDuc, P.R.*, & Messner, W.C.* Modulation of Fluidic Resistance and Capacitance for Long-Term, High-Speed Feedback Control of a Microfluidic Interface. Lab on a Chip 9, 2603-2609 (2009).
  • Chou, S.Y., Cheng, C.M., & LeDuc, P.R.* Composite Polymer Systems with Control of Local Substrate Elasticity and Their Effect on Cytoskeletal and Morphological Characteristics of Adherent Cells. Biomaterials 30, 3136-3142 (2009).
  • Kuczenski, B., Ruder, W.C., Messner, W.C.*, & LeDuc, P.R.* Probing Cellular Dynamics with a Chemical Signal Generator. PLoS ONE 4(3): e4847 (2009).


  • Helmick, L., Antúnez de Mayolo, A., Zhang, Y., Cheng, C.M., Watkins, S.C., Wu, C. & LeDuc, P.* Spatiotemporal Response of Living Cell Structures in Dictyostelium discoideum with Semiconductor Quantum Dots. Nano Letters 8, 1303 - 1308 (2008).
  • Zhang, Y., Ruder, W.C., & LeDuc, P.* Artificial Cells: Building Bioinspired Systems using Small-Scale Biology. Trends in Biotechnology 26, 14-20 (2008).
  • Cheng, C.M., & LeDuc, P.R.* Structural Phase Coexistence under Reversible Thermal Control. Advanced Materials 20, 953-958 (2008).
  • Cheng, C.M.,& LeDuc, P.R.* Creating Cellular and Molecular Patterns Via Gravitational Force with Liquid Droplets. Applied Physics Letters 93, 174106 (3) (2008).
  • Lu, Y.L., Cheng, C.M., LeDuc, P.R.*, & Ho, M.S.* Controlling the Mechanics and Nanotopography of Biocompatiable Scaffolds through Dielectrophoresis with Carbon Nanotubes. Electrophoresis 29, 3123-3127 (2008).
  • Lee, B., LeDuc, P.R., Schwartz, R. Stochastic Off-Lattice Modeling of Molecular Self-Assembly in Crowded Environments by Green's Function Reaction Dynamics. Physical Review E 78, 031911 (3) (2008).
  • Huang, X., Cheng, C.M., Wang, L., Wang, B., Su, C.C., Ho, M.S., LeDuc, P.*, & Lin, Q.* Thermally Adjustable Microlenses for Biological Imaging. Applied Physics Letters 92, 251904 (3) (2008).


  • LeDuc, P.*, Wong, M.*, et al. Toward an In Vivo Biologically-Inspired Nanofactory Nature. Nanotechnology 2, 3-7 (2007).
  • Cheng, C.M., & LeDuc, P.R.* Creating Ordered Small-Scale Biologically-Based Rods through Force-Controlled Stamping. Journal of the American Chemical Society 129, 9546-9547 (2007).
  • Kuczenski, B., LeDuc, P.R.*, & Messner, W.C.* Pressure Driven Spatiotemporal Control of the Laminar Fluid Interface in a Microfluidic Network. Lab on a Chip 7, 647-649 (2007).
  • Zhang, Y., Cheng, C.M., & LeDuc, P.R.* Chemically Encapsulated Structural Elements for Probing the Mechanical Responses of Biologically Inspired Systems. Langmuir 23, 8129-8134 (2007).
  • Trofin, L., & LeDuc, P.R.* Controlled Fabrication of Polymer Nanofibers through Template Synthesis. Journal of Applied Polymers 105, 2549-2552 (2007).
  • LeDuc, P.*, & Schwartz, R.* Computational Models of Molecular Self-Organization in Cellular Environments. Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics 48,16-31 (2007).
  • Tafazzoli, A., Cheng, C.M., Pawashe, C., Sabo, E., Trofin, L., Sitti, M.*, & LeDuc, P.* Subfeature Patterning of Organic And Inorganic Materials Using Robotic Assembly. Journal of Material Research 22, 1601-1608 (2007).
  • Puskar, K., Parisi-Amon, A., Ta'asan, S., Schwartz, R., & LeDuc, P.R.* Modeling Molecular Interactions to Understand Spatial Crowding Effects on Heterodimer Formations. Physical Review E 76, 041904 (3) (2007).
  • LeDuc, P.R.*, & Robinson, D.N.* Using Lessons from Cellular and Molecular Structures for Future Materials. Advanced Materials 19, 3761-3770 (2007).


  • Cheng, C.M. & LeDuc, P.R.* Force-Controlled Inorganic Crystallization Lithography. Journal of the American Chemical Society 128,12080 (2) (2006).
  • Cheng, C.-M., & LeDuc, P.R.* Microdrilling for Fabricating Micrometer-Scale Holes in Soft Matter. Applied Physics A 85, 195-198 (2006).
  • Yang, J.M. & LeDuc, P.* Three-Dimensional Phase Separation and Flow Patterns with Novel Multilevel Fluidics. Molecular and Cellular Biomechanics 3, 69-78 (2006).
  • Cheng, C.M. & LeDuc, P.* Micropatterning Polyvinyl Alcohol as a Biomimetic Material through Soft Lithography with Cell Culture. Molecular Biosystems 2, 299-304 (2006).
  • LeDuc, P.* & Bellin, R.* Nanoscale Intracellular Organization and Functional Architecture Mediating Cellular Behavior. Annals of Biomedical Engineering 34,102-113 (2006).
  • Puskar, K., Ta'asan, S., Schwartz, R., & LeDuc, P.* Spatial Constraints in Polymer Assembly Systems through Coarse Grained Modeling. Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics 45, 195-202 (2006).
  • Cheng, C.-M., Kubicek, J. & LeDuc, P.R.* Novel Polymeric Microlenses for Real-Time Aqueous and Non-aqueous Organic Imaging. Applied Physics Letters 88, 053902 (3) (2006).


  • Cheng, C.-M., Li, B. & LeDuc, P.R.* Optical Fabrication of Three-Dimensional Polymeric Microstructures. Applied Physics Letters 87,164104 (3) (2005).
  • Shen, N., Datta, D., Schaffer, C.B., LeDuc, P.R., Ingber, D.E., & Mazur, E. Ablation of Cytoskeletal Filaments and Mitochondria in Live Cells Using a Femtosecond Laser Nanoscissor. Molecular and Cellular Biomechanics 2, 17-25 (2005).
  • LeDuc, P.*, & Wang, Y.* Protein Adsorption at the Biomaterial/Tissue Interface. Fundamentals and Applications of Biomaterials (2004).
  • Puskar, K., Apelstein, L., Ta'asan, S., Schwartz, R. & LeDuc, P.* Understanding actin organization in cell structure through lattice based monte carlo simulations. Molecular and Cellular Biomechanics 1, 123-131 (2004).
  • Kubicek, J., Brelsford, S., Ahluwalia, P. & LeDuc, P.R.* Three-dimensional cellular stimulation using networked and constrained membranes with differential elasticity. Langmuir 20, 11552-11556 (2004).


  • Brock, A., Chang, E., Ho, C.C., LeDuc, P.R., Jiang, X.J., Whitesides, G.W., & Ingber, D. Geometric Determinants of Directional Cell Motility Revealed Using Microcontact Printing. Langmuir 19, 1611-1617 (2003).
  • Takayama, S., Ostuni, E., LeDuc, P.R., Naruse, K., Ingber, D., & Whitesides, G.M. Selective Chemical Treatment of Cellular Microdomains Using Multiple Laminar Streams. Chem & Biol 10,123-130 (2003).
  • Jiang, X., Takayama, S., Qian, X., Ostuni, E., Wu, H., Bowden, N., LeDuc, P.R., Ingber, D.E., & Whitesides, G.M. Controlling Mammalian Cell Spreading and Cytoskeletal Arrangement with Conveniently Fabricated Continuous Wavy Features on Poly(dimethylsiloxane). Langmuir 18, 3273-3280 (2002).
  • Castedo, M., Roumier, T., Blanco, J., Ferri, K.F., Barretina, J., Tintignac, L.A., Andreau, K., Perfettini, J.L., Amendola, A., Nardacci, R., LeDuc, P., Ingber, D.E., Druillennec, S., Roques, B., Leibovitch, S.A., Vilella-Bach, M., Chen, J., Este, J.A., Modjtahedi, N., Piacentini, M., & Kroemer, G. Sequential involvement of Cdk1, mTOR and p53 in apoptosis induced by the HIV-1 envelope. Embo J 21, 4070-80 (2002).
  • LeDuc, P.R., Ostuni, E., Whitesides, G., & Ingber, D. Use of micropatterned adhesive substrates for control of cell behavior. Methods in Cell Biology 69, 385-401 (2002).


  • Takayama, S., Ostuni, E., LeDuc, P., Naruse, K., Ingber, D. E. & Whitesides, G. M. Subcellular positioning of small molecules. Nature 411, 1016. (2001).
  • Takayama, S., Ostuni, E., Qian, X., McDonald, J.C., Jiang, X., Wu, M.-H., LeDuc, P., Ingber, D., & Whitesides, G.M. Topographical Micropatterning of Poly (dimethylsiloxane) Using Laminar Flows of Liquids in Capillaries. Advanced Materials 13, 570-577 (2001).
  • LeDuc, P.R., Whiteley, E.M., Bao, G., & Betenbaugh, M.J.  Investigating the Secretion Pathway Using a Secretable Green Fluorescent Protein. Biotechnology Progress 16, 716-723 (2000).
  • Ferri, K.F., Jacotot, E., LeDuc, P., Geuskens, M., Ingber, D.E., Kroemer, G. Apoptosis of Syncytia Induced by HIV-1-ENV/CD4 Interaction. Influence of Cell Shape and Size. Experimental Cell Research 261, 119-126 (2000).
  • LeDuc, P., Haber, C., Bao, G. & Wirtz, D. Dynamics of individual flexible polymers in a shear flow. Nature 399, 564-6. (1999).