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Experimental Setup

The experimental setup measures the necessary data for material and energy balances.

The fuel system includes a differential flow meter, which measures the flow rate of the fuel going to the engine, and the flow rate of the fuel returning from the engine, and provides a differential output.

A fuel temperature measurement is also obtained using a strap-on thermocouple. A strap-on thermocouple was required as the fuel flow lines are only ½” in diameter and fitting a probe inside the flow would have been a large obstruction.

Finally, an ultrasonic level sensor has been installed at the top of each 300 gallon fuel tank to provide a back fuel consumption measurement. All of the fuel consumption measurements will be independently checked using a weigh scale and a five gallon tank.

The air intake has an inline flow meter and a thermocouple installed as well as differential temperature and pressure measurements across the compressor side of the turbocharger.

The engine exhaust has multiple measurements including; differential temperature and pressure measurements across the expander side of the turbocharger, three exhaust temperature measurements, and an emissions suite. The three exhaust temperatures (engine exhaust, exhaust heat recovery outlet, and stack) allow for calculating the amount of heat recovered and the amount bypassed.

The steam side of the exhaust heat recovery system has two pressure measurements and one flow measurement. It is assumed that the steam generated will be saturated; therefore no thermocouple is required however a temperature gauge has been installed.

The engine coolant inlet and outlet temperatures and the flow rate are measured to determine heat rejection from the engine block. The coolant heat exchanger also has flow and temperature inlet and outlet measurements for both the coolant side and the water side.

Pressure sensors have been installed in each cylinder of the engine together with a rotary encoder on the engine shaft to provide precise measurements for pressure – crank angle – time analyses for each cylinder.

The measurements will be analyzed (by heat release rate analysis) to characterize the combustion process of the various fuels.

Gaseous (O2, NOX, CO2, CO, and unburned hydrocarbons) and particulate matter measurements will be made using multiple instruments including a large Beckman gas analyzer, a portable Nova gas analyzer, quartz and zircon filter packs for particulates, a scanning mobility particle analyzer, and an aerosol mass spectrometer. The water in the exhaust is condensed out using a small heat exchanger before emissions are sampled.

Detailed Instrumentation Setups

Exhaust Gas Cooler

Pressure - Time - Crank Angle


Emissions Testing