This document is a synthesis of presentations and discourse at a workshop on social studies of science, technology, and democracy during the Cold War. Held at the Santa Fe Institute in Santa Fe, New Mexico, September 18-20, 1994, the workshop also addressed the fundamental changes in the pursuit of science and technology that have begun -- and will continue -- to unfold as a result of the end of the Cold War. Participants included scholars from various social science disciplines whose work centers on issues of how the Cold War shaped science and technology and possible scenarios for science and technology in the post-Cold War era. The workshop members believe firmly that new, fundamental thinking and research on science, technology, and the pursuit of international security during the Cold War are not only desirable but also necessary if we are to learn from the Cold War experience, thereby strengthening democratic traditions at home while promoting them abroad.

The participants in the workshop were:


Henry Williams Brands
Department of History
Texas A&M University
Allan Greb
Nuclear History Project
San Diego State University
Lynn E. Brown
Vice President and Economist
Federal Reserve Bank of Boston
Barton C. Hacker
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
James Clayton
Department of History
University of Utah
Gregg Herken
National Air and Space Museum
Smithsonian Institution
Benjamin Franklin Cooling
U.S. Department of Energy
Lillian H. Hoddeson
Department of Physics
University of Illinois
Michael A. Dennis
Dept. of Science & Technology Studies
Cornell University
Gregory Hooks
Department of Sociology
Washington State University
Roger Geiger
Higher Education Program
Penn State University
David A. Hounshell
Department of History
Carnegie Mellon University
Margaret B. W. Graham
Xerox PARC
Palo Alto, California
Daniel J. Kevles
Department of History
California Institute of Technology
Stuart W. Leslie
History of Science
Johns Hopkins University
Margaret Rossiter
Dept. of Science & Technology Studies
Cornell University
Rebecca Lowen
National Air and Space Museum
Smithsonian Institution
Bruce Seely
Department of Social Sciences
Michigan Technological University
Jane Maienschein
Department of Philosophy
Arizona State University
Robert W. Seidel
Charles Babbage Institute
University of Minnesota
Allan Needell
National Air and Space Museum
Smithsonian Institution
Judyth L. Twigg
Department of Political Science
Virginia Commonwealth University
Judith Reppy
Peace Studies Program
Cornell University
Spencer Weart
Center for History of Physics
American Institute of Physics
Alex Roland
Dibner Institute
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Allan Winkler
Department of History
Miami Univeristy


Among this group, Allan Greb, Lillian Hoddeson, Gregory Hookes, Daniel Kevles, Bruce Seely, and Spencer Weart deserve special recognition for providing initial presentations that framed the work of six focus groups. Alex Roland offered a challenging summary of the workshop's proceedings, which catalyzed the final plenary session's discussions and conclusions.

The workshop owes a debt of gratitude to Allan Kornberg, Director of NSF's Division for Social, Behavioral and Economic Research, who recognized the importance of the complex issues surrounding democratic values and Cold War science and technology, and to Ronald Overmann, Director of NSF's Science and Technology Studies Program (STS), who encouraged bold thinking among the leadership of the academic societies whose members depend on the STS Program to support leading edge research. Two other members of NSF attended the workshop and lent their valuable advice and encouragement: Rachelle Hollander, Director of the Ethics and Values Studies Program, and Frank Scioli, Director of the Political Science Program.

Three other individuals were central to the workshop and to the initial drafting of this document. Hugh Gorman, Daniel Holbrook, and David Jardini, graduate students in the Department of History at Carnegie Mellon University, served as recorders for the workshop's focus groups and its plenary sessions. They also helped to draft the report. David Jardini's role was especially important, both in the conceptualization and execution of the workshop and in revising the final report.

The Santa Fe Institute's hospitality is greatfully acknowledged. Special thanks go to Dr. L. M. Simmons, Jr., Vice President for academic Affairs, for his support, and to Andi Sutherland, who directed local arrangements with care and charm.

David A. Hounshell
Workshop Convenor and Henry R. Luce Professor of
Technology and Social Change
Department of History and
Department of Social and Decision Sciences
Carnegie Mellon University
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213

The views and comments contained in this document are not necessarily those of the National Science Foundation but are solely the product of the Workshop on Cold War Science and Technology.

Additional copies of this report can be obtained from Dr. Ronald Overmann, Program Director, Science and Technology Studies, National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Blvd., Arlington, VA 22230, 703-306- 1743, (fax) 703-306-0485, or

Lockheed photo by Schulzinger and Lombard.

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