|AAA's Benchmark for Scientific Literacy|
Pennsylvania Academic Standards for Science and Technology and Engineering Education
| Pennsylvania Assessment Anchors|
Elementary School(Grades 1-5)
|Students learn that light travels and tends to maintain its direction of motion until it interacts with an object or material. Light can be absorbed, redirected, bounced back, or allowed to pass through.|| |
(PA) 3.2.3.B5: Recognize that light travels in a straight line until it strikes an object or travels from one material to another
(PA) 3.2.4.B5: Demonstrate how light can be reflected, refracted or absorbed by an object
(PA) 3.2.4.B: Describe objects in the world using the five senses.
(PA) 3.2.4.C: Recognize and use the elements of scientific inquiry to solve problems.
(PA) 3.2.4.D: Recognize and use the technological design process to solve problems.
S4.A.1.3.1 Observe and record change by using time and measurement.
S4.A.1.3.3 Observe and describe the change to objects caused by temperature change or light.
S4.A.2.1.1 Generate questions about objects, organisms, or events that can be answered through scientific investigations.
S4.A.2.1.2 Design and describe an investigation (a fair test) to test one variable.
S4.A.2.1.3 Observe a natural phenomenon (e.g., weather changes, length of daylight/night, movement of shadows, animal migrations, growth of plants), record observations, and then make a prediction based on those observations.
S4.A.2.1.4 State a conclusion that is consistent with the information/data.
S4.A.2.2.1 Identify appropriate tools or instruments for specific tasks and describe the information they can provide
S4.C.2.1.1 Identify energy forms, energy transfer, and energy examples (e.g., light, heat, electrical).
Middle School(Grades 6-8)
|Students learn that light from the sun is made of a mixture of many different colors of light, even though to the eye the light looks almost white. Other things that give off or reflect light have a different mix of colors|| |
(PA) 3.2.7.B5 : Demonstrate that visible light is a mixture of many different colors. Explain the construct of the electromagnetic spectrum.
(PA) 3.2.7.A: Explain and apply scientific and technological knowledge.
(PA) 3.2.7.B: Apply process knowledge to make and interpret observations.
(PA) 3.2.7.C: Identify and use the elements of scientific inquiry to solve problems.
(PA) 3.2.7.D: Know and use the technological design process to solve problems.
S8.A.2.1.1 Use evidence, observations, or a variety of scales (e.g., mass, distance, volume, temperature) to describe relationships.
S8.A.2.1.2 Use space/time relationships, define concepts operationally, raise testable questions, or formulate hypotheses.
S8.A.2.1.3 Design a controlled experiment by specifying how the independent variables will be manipulated, how the dependent variable will be measured, and which variables will be held constant.
S8.A.2.1.4 Interpret data/observations; develop relationships among variables based on data/observations to design models as solutions.
S8.A.2.1.5 Use evidence from investigations to clearly communicate and support conclusions.
S8.A.2.2.2 Apply appropriate measurement systems (e.g., time, mass, distance, volume, temperature) to record and interpret observations under varying conditions.
S8.A.2.2.3 Describe ways technology (e.g., microscope, telescope, micrometer, hydraulics, barometer) extends and enhances human abilities for specific purposes.
S8.C.2.1.1 Distinguish among forms of energy (e.g., electrical, mechanical, chemical, light, sound, nuclear) and sources of energy (i.e., renewable and nonrenewable energy)
High School(Grades (9-12)
Students learn that waves can superpose on one another, bend around corners, reflect off surfaces, be absorbed by materials they enter, and change direction when entering a new material. All these effects vary with wavelength.
(PA) 3.2.10.B5: Describe the components of the electromagnetic spectrum
(PA) 3.2.P.B5: Explain how waves carry information from remote sources that can be detected and interpreted
(PA) 3.2.12.B5: Research how principles of wave transmission are used in a wide range of technologies
(PA) 3.2.10.B: Apply process knowledge and organize scientific and technological phenomena in varied ways.
(PA) 3.2.10.C: Apply the elements of scientific inquiry to solve problems
(PA) 3.2.10.D: Identify and apply the technological design process to solve problems.
(PA) 3.2.12.B: Evaluate experimental information for appropriateness and adherence to relevant science processes.
(PA) 3.2.12.C: Apply the elements of scientific inquiry to solve multi-step problems
(PA) 3.2.12.D: Analyze and use the technological design process to solve problems.
(PA) 3.4.10.C.5: Describe light effects (e.g. Doppler Effect, dispersion, absorption, emission spectra, polarization, interference)
(PA) 3.4.10.C.6: Describe and measure the motion of sound, light and other objects
(PA) 3.4.12.C.1: Evaluate wave properties of frequency, wavelength and speed as applied to sound and light through different media.
S11.A.2.1.1 Critique the elements of an experimental design (e.g., raising questions, formulating hypotheses, developing procedures, identifying variables, manipulating variables, interpreting data, and drawing conclusions) applicable to a specific experimental design.
S11.A.2.1.2 Critique the elements of the design process (e.g. identify the problem, understand criteria, create solutions, select solution, test/evaluate and communicate results) applicable to a specific technological design.
S11.A.2.1.3 Use data to make inferences and predictions, or to draw conclusions, demonstrating understanding of experimental limits.
S11.A.2.1.4 Critique the results and conclusions of scientific inquiry for consistency and logic.
S11.A.2.1.5 Communicate results of investigations using multiple representations.
S11.A.2.2.1 Evaluate appropriate methods, instruments, and scale for precise quantitative and qualitative observations (e.g., to compare properties of materials, water quality).
S11.A.2.2.2 Explain how technology is used to extend human abilities and precision.
S11.C.2.1.1 Compare or analyze different types of waves in the electromagnetic spectrum (e.g., ultraviolet, infrared, visible light, x-rays, microwaves) as it relates to their properties, energy levels, and motion.